Presentation on theme: "Adverbs Words which are used to modify verbs or adjectives are usually referred to as adverbs. For instance, the adverbs in the following sentences are."— Presentation transcript:
Adverbs Words which are used to modify verbs or adjectives are usually referred to as adverbs. For instance, the adverbs in the following sentences are printed in bold type, and the words they modify are underlined. e.g. I often visit the library. It is surprisingly hot today.
Adverbs Words which are used to modify adverbs can also be referred to as adverbs. e.g. The train travels very quickly. In this example, the adverb very modifies the adverb quickly.
Adverbs which modify adjectives and other adverbs Adverbs which modify adjectives or other adverbs usually immediately precede the words they modify. e.g. The package is extremely large. We experienced relatively few difficulties. The adverbs ago and enough are exceptional, since they usually follow the adjectives or adverbs they modify.
Intensifiers An adverb which is used to modify adjectives and adverbs, but which is not usually used to modify verbs, can be referred to as an intensifier. In the following examples, the intensifiers are printed in bold type. e.g. I am very happy. The film was quite good.
Adverbs which modify verbs a. Adverbs of frequency Adverbs of frequency answer the question How often? An adverb which modifies a verb may occupy one of three main positions in a clause: the beginning position, the middle position, and the end position.
Adverbs of time Adverbs of time answer the question When? Adverbs of time usually occupy either the beginning position or the end position of a clause. In the following examples, the adverbs of time are printed in bold type. e.g. Today I will go to the library. I will go to the post office tomorrow.
Adverbs of manner Adverbs of manner answer the question How? Many adverbs of manner have the ending ly. The formation and use of adverbs of manner will be discussed in more detail in the next chapter. Adverbs of manner most often occupy the end position of a clause, where they follow an intransitive verb, or the direct object of a transitive verb. e.g. We waited patiently for the play to begin. I sold the strawberries quickly.
Connecting adverbs Adverbs such as however, nevertheless and therefore are often used to connect the ideas expressed by the clauses in which they occur to ideas expressed in previous clauses. In the following examples, the connecting adverbs are printed in bold type. Connecting adverbs are often placed at the beginning of a clause. e.g. I would like to go skiing. However, I have too much work to do. She was very busy; nevertheless, she found time to go swimming.
Adverb phrases and clauses of purpose Adverb phrases and clauses of purpose answer the question Why? This question is usually answered by a phrase or clause, rather than by a single-word adverb. In the following examples, the adverb phrases and clauses of purpose are underlined. Adverb phrases and clauses of purpose usually occupy the end position of a clause, and follow any other adverbs, or adverb phrases or clauses. e.g. I went to the store yesterday to buy a coat. I need to buy a new coat soon because my old one is worn out.
Adverbs of location Adverbs of location answer the question Where? Adverbs of location, and adverb phrases and clauses of location, most often occupy the end position of a clause, where they precede adverbs of time and adverbs of purpose. In the following examples, the adverbs and adverb phrases and clauses of location are underlined. e.g. I am going there tomorrow. He left his bicycle in the driveway last night. I know the office where she works.
Order of Adverbs Verb of Motion: Adverb of Location, Adverb of Manner, Adverb of Time, Adverb of Purpose which is not a Verb of Motion: Adverb of Manner, Adverb of Location, Adverb of Time, Adverb of Purpose
Inverted word order When used with a verb of motion, an adverb or adverb phrase of location may be placed at the beginning of a clause, followed immediately by the verb, followed by the noun subject of the verb.
Negative adverbs Negative adverbs include adverbs with an explicit negative meaning, such as never, not and nowhere, as well as adverbs with an implied negative meaning, such as hardly, scarcely and seldom.
Negative adverbs If a clause begins with a negative adverb, inverted word order must usually be used, with the subject following the Simple Present or Simple Past of the verb to be, or the first auxiliary. In the case of the Simple Present or Simple Past of any verb other than the verb to be, the auxiliary to do must be used.
Interrogative adverbs The adverbs how, when, where and why can be used as interrogative adverbs at the beginning of direct questions. The interrogative adverbs in the following direct questions are printed in bold type. e.g. How are you? When is he coming? Where were you? Why did you say that?
Degrees of adverbs There are three degrees of adverbs, just like adjectives. They are the positive degree, the comparitive degree, and the superlative degree. All adverbs that end in -ly form their comparative and superlative degree with more and most. quickly, more quickly, most quickly slowly, more slowly, most slowly
Adjuncts, Disjuncts, and Conjuncts Regardless of its position, an adverb is often neatly integrated into the flow of a sentence. When this is true, as it almost always is, the adverb is called an adjunct. When the adverb does not fit into the flow of the clause, it is called a disjunct or a conjunct and is often set off by a comma or set of commas.
Adjuncts, Disjuncts, and Conjuncts A disjunct frequently acts as a kind of evaluation of the rest of the sentence. Although it usually modifies the verb, we could say that it modifies the entire clause, too. Frankly, Martha, I don't give a hoot. Fortunately, no one was hurt.
Adjuncts, Disjuncts, and Conjuncts Conjuncts, on the other hand, serve a connector function within the flow of the text, signaling a transition between ideas. If they start smoking those awful cigars, then I'm not staying. We've told the landlord about this ceiling again and again, and yet he's done nothing to fix it. At the extreme edge of this category, we have the purely conjunctive device known as the conjunctive adverb (often called the adverbial conjunction): Jose has spent years preparing for this event; nevertheless, he's the most nervous person here. I love this school; however, I don't think I can afford the tuition.