Presentation on theme: "A geminate is a word that has identical second and third root consonants, such as סָבַב and אָרַר. In several of the perfect verb forms, the first twin."— Presentation transcript:
A geminate is a word that has identical second and third root consonants, such as סָבַב and אָרַר. In several of the perfect verb forms, the first twin consonant assimilates into the second twin consonant and manifests itself as a dagesh. In the case of אָרַר, the ר cannot take a dagesh, and as a result, the vowel under the first consonant lengthens according to the principles of compensatory lengthening introduced in lesson 2. PNG Standard Strong Geminate Guttural Geminate 3ms קָטַלסָבַבאָרַר 3fs קָטְלָהסָבֲבָהאֳרְרָה 2ms קָטַלְתָּסַבּוֹתָאָרוֹתָ 2fs קָטַלְתְּסַבּוֹתאָרוֹת 1cs קָטַלְתִּיסַבּוֹתִיאָרוֹתִי 3cp קָטְלוּסָבֲבוּאֳרְרוּ 2mp קְטַלְתֶּםסַבּוֹתֶםאָרוֹתֶם 2fp קְטַלְתֶּןסַבּוֹתֶןאָרוֹתֶן 1cp קָטַלְנוּסַבּוֹנוּאָרוֹנוּ In cases where the first twin consonant assimilates into the second twin consonant, notice the addition of the וֹ before the suffix. The presence of the וֹ before the suffix is a good indication that the verb is a geminate.
The words עִם and אֶת־ both mean “with” and can receive pronominal suffixes as follows: עִמִּי with me אִתִּי with me עִמְּךָ with you (ms) אִתְּךָ with you (ms) עִמָּךְ with you (fs) אִתָּךְ with you (fs) עִמּוֹ with him אִתּוֹ with him עִמָּהּ with her אִתָּהּ with her עִמָּנוּ with us אִתָּנוּ with us עִמָּכֶם with you (mp) אִתְּכֶם with you (mp) עִמָּכֶן with you (fp) אִתְּכֶן with you (fp) עִמָּם with them (mp) אִתָּם with them (mp) עִמָּן with them (fp) אִתָּן with them (fp) (not to be confused with the direct object marker— we’ll see the difference on the next slide) (not to be confused with עַם people – we’ll study the difference in a moment)
The words עִם and אֶת־ both mean “with” and can receive pronominal suffixes as follows: עִמִּי with me עַמִּי my people עִמְּךָ with you (ms) עַמְּךָ your people (ms) עִמָּךְ with you (fs) עַמֵּךְ your people (fs) עִמּוֹ with him עַמּוֹ his people עִמָּהּ with her עַמָּהּ her people עִמָּנוּ with us עַמֵּנוּ our people עִמָּכֶם with you (mp) עַמְּכֶ ם your people (mp) עִמָּכֶן with you (fp) עַמְּכֶן your people (fp) עִמָּם with them (mp) עַמָּם their people (mp) עִמָּן with them (fp) עַמָּן their people (fp) Main difference: hireq (with) vs. patakh (people)
Note the difference between the direct object marker (listed first) and “with” (listed second): אֹתָנוּ us אִתָּנוּ with us אֶתְכֶם you (m. p.) אִתְּכֶם with you (mp) אֶתְכֶן you (f. p.) אִתְּכֶן with you (fp) אׁתָם or אֶתְהֶם them (m. p.) אִתָּם with them (mp) אׁתָן or אֶתְהֶן them (f. p.) אִתָּן with them (fp) אֹתִי me אִתִּי with me אֹתְךָ you (m. s.) אִתְּךָ with you (ms) אֹתָךְ you (f. s.) אִתָּךְ with you (fs) אֹתוׂ him אִתּוֹ with him אֹתָהּ her אִתָּהּ with her אֵת \ אֶת־ Direct Object Marker אֵת \ אֶת־ with, together with Differences: vowels & dagesh
A resumptive pronoun is a pronoun that refers back to a previously realized item within the same syntactic structure. For example: “The man who died” (who is the resumptive pronoun); “The girl to whom I spoke” (whom is the resumptive pronoun).
In lesson 5 we learned that the word אֲשֶׁר can be translated as who, which, or that, depending on context. We will now learn how to create the Hebrew equivalent of the English phrases to whom and for whom. אֲשֶׁר is not usually combined with a preposition to create phrases such as to whom or for whom. Instead, a pronoun is included in the relative clause that אֲשֶׁר introduces. Note the following examples: הָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּרְתִּי לוֹ Literal: the man who I spoke to him Idiomatic: the man to whom I spoke הַבַּיִת אֲשֶׁר יָצַא מִמֶּנָּה Literal: the house which he came from it Idiomatic: the house from which he came הָאִשָּׁה אֲשֶׁר דִּבְּרוּ עִמָּהּ Literal: the woman who they spoke with her Idiomatic: the woman with whom they spoke
In some cases, adverbs such as שָׁם and שָׁמָּה can be used instead of a pronoun. For example: הַכִּסֵּא אֲשֶׁר יָשַׁב שׁם Literal: the throne which he sat there Idiomatic: the throne on which he sat הַבַּיִת אֲשֶׁר יָצַא שָׁמָּה Literal: the house which he went thither Idiomatic: the house to which he went When אֲשֶׁר refers to a verb’s direct object, the pronoun is optional. For example: הַסֵּפֶר אֲשֶׁר שָׁכַחְתִּי אֹתוֹ Literal: the book that I forgot it Idiomatic: the book that I forgot הַסֵּפֶר שָׁכַחְתִּי אֹתוֹ Literal: the book I forgot it Idiomatic: the book that I forgot
Generally, אֲשֶׁר corresponds with the relative pronouns who, which, or that. In some cases, אֲשֶׁר takes on a relative meaning such as that or which. אֲשֶׁר can also take the position of a subordinating conjunction such as since or because. The possible uses of אֲשֶׁר as a relative pronoun or a subordinating conjunction are extensive. For our purposes, be aware of these possible uses as you determine how to translate אֲשֶׁר. Note the translation values for אֲשֶׁר in the following examples: כַּאֲשֶׁר when, as, according as אַחֲרֵי אֲשֶׁר after (or) after that/which יַעַן אֲשֶׁר because (or) because that
The examples from the previous page are the most common exceptions that you will encounter. Additionally, keep in mind that the presence of אֲשֶׁר is not required to introduce a relative clause. אֲשֶׁר is more commonly found in prose than poetry. For example: הֵן אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה יַעֲזָר־לִי מִי־הוּא יַרְשִׁיעֵנִי Behold, the Lord God will help me; who is he that shall condemn me? (Isaiah 50:9)