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Lesson 36 הִנֵּה The meaning of נָא “yet”, “again”, “still”, “once more”

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Presentation on theme: "Lesson 36 הִנֵּה The meaning of נָא “yet”, “again”, “still”, “once more”"— Presentation transcript:

1 Lesson 36 הִנֵּה The meaning of נָא “yet”, “again”, “still”, “once more”

2 הִנֵּה הִנֵּה is used frequently in the Hebrew Bible and may be translated as “behold, ” “here,” or “now.” Some translators do not translate it at all in some passages. The meaning and function of הִנֵּה can be varied, but for the purposes of Hebrew 132, “behold” is an appropriate translation. Other words? Dr. Ricks uses, “SNAP!” “Yo Dude” “Hey” “Now” ……Listen up!.....

3 הִנֵּה Note the following forms of pronominal suffixes for הִנֵּה. הִנֵּה 1cs הִנֶּנִּי / הִנְנִי here I am 2ms הִנְּךָ here you are 2fs הִנֵּךְ here you are 3ms הִנּוֹ here he is 3fs unattested 1cp הִנֶּנּוּ / הִנְנוּ here we are 2mp הִנְּכֶם here you are 2fp unattested 3mp הִנָּם here they are 3fp unattested

4 הִנֵּה There are two primary meanings and purposes of הִנֵּה. Similar to יֵש, הִנֵּה acts as a predicator of existence. הִנֵּה places emphasis on the immediacy of the situation. While יֵשׁ refers to a more timeless existence, הִנֵּה defines the existence as right here, right now. For example: הִנֵּה הַיֶּלֶד Here is the boy. הִנֶּנִּי Here am I. הִנֵּה provides the same immediacy for sentences with participial, adjectival, or adverbial predicates. Note the following translational differences. הָעֶבֶד בַהֵיכָל The servant is in the temple. הִנֵּה הָעֶבֶד בַהֵיכָל Behold, the servant is now in the temple. בָּא הַיֶּלֶד אֶל־הַבַּיִת The boy is coming to the house. הִנֵּה בָּא הַיֶּלֶד אֶל־הַבַּיִת Behold, the boy is now coming to the house.

5 הִנֵּה Often, הִנֵּה is used in conversational speech. A הִנֵּה clause often precedes another clause, creating either a conjunctive or disjunctive relationship. There are three main types of conjunctive and disjunctive הִנֵּה clause relationships. הִנֵּה clause—imperative הִנֵּה הַלֶּחֶם עַל־שֻׁלְחָן נַאֲכֹלָה Behold, the food is on the table; let us eat it. הִנֵּה סָר הָעֶבֶד אֶמְצְאָה אֹתוֹ Behold, the servant has departed; find him. Note the lack of a vav-conjunction between the two clauses. This is a unique construction. You may choose to subordinate the הִנֵּה clause to the imperative clause. For example: הִנֵּה הַלֶּחֶם עַל־שֻׁלְחָן נַאֲכֹלָה Behold, the food is on the table; therefore let us eat it. הִנֵּה סָר הָעֶבֶד אֶמְצְאָה אֹתוֹ Behold, since the servant has departed; find him. Sometimes the imperative clause will begin with וְעַתָּה (and now) or עַתָּה (now), which supports the immediacy of the action.

6 הִנֵּה הִנֵּה clause—converted perfect (gives information, then narrative) הִנֵּה קָשָׁה הָעֲבוֹדָה וְנָתַתִּי עַתָּה זְרוֹעַ Behold, the work is difficult but I will give you strength. הִנֵּה בָּא הַיּוֹם וְמָשַׁל Behold, the day has come when he will rule. הִנֵּה clause—disjunctive clause הִנֵּה הָעֵצִים וְאַיֵּה הַזֶּבַח Behold, here is the wood but where is the sacrifice? הִנֵּה כָּלָּה עֲבוֹדָה וְאָשׁוּב Behold, though the work is finished, I will return. This form is less common. The examples fit in the disjunctive category, since the clauses do not create a temporal timeline.

7 הִנֵּה Some instances require הִנֵּה to be rendered as a disjunctive clause with a future completed sense. Translating הִנֵּה as “when” helps achieve a sense of future completion. For example: הִנֵּה בָּאתִי וְאֶרְאֶה אַתָּה When I come, I will see you. הִנֵּה הוּא מֹות תָּבוֹא הַבַּיִתָה When he has died, you will come to the house. הִנֵּה is also used to introduce a circumstance, in some instances without a specified subject. For example: בָּא אֶת־הַבַּיִת וְהִנֵּה עֲמְדָה חוּץ He entered the house while she stood outside. שֳׁמְעָה אֶת־הַדְּבָרִים וְהִנֵּה ישַׁבַת בַּבַּיִת She heard the words while sitting in the house.

8 The Meaning of נָא Often, נָא is translated as “please, I pray” and is attached to a cohortative, imperative, or jussive. Generally, the use of נָא denotes the logical sequence of the command before or after a particular situation is stated. נָא is often combined with הִנֵּה. וַיֹּאמֶר לֹו הִנֵּה־נָא אִישׁ־אֱלֹהִים בָּעִיר הַזֹּאת...עַתָּה נֵלֲכָה שָּׁם And he said to him, “Please, I pray, there is a man of God in this city…now let us go there” (1 Sam 9:6) וַיֹּאמֶר הִנֶּה נָּא־אֲדֹנַי סוּרוּ נָא אֶל־בֵּית עַבְדְּכֶם... And he said, “Please, I pray, my lords, turn, I pray, into the house of your servant…” (Gen 19:2)

9 עוֹד and אַיֵּה עוֹד is used as an adverb to modify a verb in a sentence. The best translation for עוֹד is “again”, “yet”, “still”, “once more.” For example: עָמַד עוֹד וַיֵּלֶךְ He stood again and walked. וַיִּבֶן עוֹד בַּיִת אַחֵר And he built still another house.

10 עוֹד and אַיֵּה The following are examples of עוֹד with pronominal suffixes. עוֹד again, yet, still, once more 1cs עוֹדֶנִּי / עוֹדִי I am again 2ms עוֹדְךָ you are again 2fs עוֹדָךְ you are again 3ms עוֹדֶנּוּ he is again 3fs עוֹדֶנָּה she is again 1cp unattested 2mp unattested 2fp unattested 3mp עוֹדָם they are again 3fp unattested

11 עוֹד and אַיֵּה Consider the following examples of sentences using עוֹד with a pronominal suffix. עוֹדָם פֹּה They are still here. עוֹד הַמֶּלֶךְ הַי The king is still alive. הַעוֹד בֵּן אַחֵר Is there yet another son? עוֹד is also used to denote a temporal expression. For example: עוֹד שְׁלֹשֶת שָׁנִים yet three years, three more years בְעוֹד הָאִישׁ הֹלֵךְ while the man was still walking

12 עוֹד and אַיֵּה אַיֵּה (where?) is occasionally combined with pronominal suffixes similar to עוֹד. Note the following attested forms. אַיֵּה where? 1cs 2ms אַיֶּכָּה where are you? 2fs 3ms אַיּוֹ where is he? 3fs 1cp 2mp 2fp 3mp אַיָּם where are they? 3fp

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