Presentation on theme: "The changes in the III-ה verb form are extensive and require careful consideration to understand and translate. PNGStandard III-ה 3ms קָטַלגָּלָה 3fs."— Presentation transcript:
The changes in the III-ה verb form are extensive and require careful consideration to understand and translate. PNGStandard III-ה 3ms קָטַלגָּלָה 3fs קָטְלָהגָּלְתָה 2ms קָטַלְתָּגָלִיתָ 2fs קָטַלְתְּגָלִית 1cs קָטַלְתִּיגָּלִיתִי 3cp קָטְלוּגָּלוּ 2mp קְטַלְתֶּםגְּלִיתֶם 2fp קְטַלְתֶּןגְּלִיתֶן 1cp קָטַלְנוּגָּלִינוּ The III-ה is dropped, and the stem vowel is a hireq yod in the 2ms, 2fs, 1cs, 2mp, 2fp, and 1cp. The change occurs because the III-ה is a mater lectionis, which makes it susceptible to change. The III-ה changes to a ת in the 3fs. The change helps us distinguish between the 3ms and 3fs forms. The vowel pattern for the 3ms III-ה is the same as the vowel pattern for 3ms III-א. The dagesh found in the suffixes that begin with ת is absent. The dagesh is absent because the ת is preceded by a vowel (hireq yod), i.e., an open syllable.
Some verbs have more than one weak verb characteristic. Note the vowels of a III-ה verb that also has a I-guttural consonant: עֲלִיתֶם You (mp) went up. עֲלִיתֶן You (fp) went up. The verb הָיָה is also doubly weak. The 2mp and 2fp inflections of הָיָה are worth noting as irregular. הֱיִיתֶם You (2mp) were. הֱיִיתֶן You (2fp) were.
In English, we use the words to and toward to indicate movement in a direction. For example: to the house or toward to house. In Hebrew, we add the suffix ָה to the noun that receives the direction. Adding the directional ָה has the same meaning as using אֶל־. For example: אֶל־בַּיִת to a house בַּיִתָה to a house The directional ָה ending never receives the accent and as such can be distinguished from the similar feminine ending ָה. Context also helps distinguish between both suffixes. There are approximately 1,000 occurrences of the directional ָה in the Hebrew Bible. Examples: אֶרֶץ earth אַרְצָה to the earth מִצְרַיִם Egypt מִצְרַיְמָה to Egypt יְרוּשָׁלַם Jerusalem יְרוּשָׁלַמֳה to Jerusalem הַר mountain הָהָרָה to the mountain בַּיִת house הַבַּיְתָה to the house עִיר city הָעִירָה to the city Note that some forms also require the article
The directional ָה can also be used to indicate directions. For example: צָפוׁן north צָפוׁנָה northward תֵּימָן south תֵּימָנָה southward קֶדֶם east קֵדְמָה eastward יָם west יָמָּה westward Finally, the directional ָה can be used on adverbs to indicate direction. For example: הֵנָּה to here שָּמָּה to there אָנָה to where?