2Aims: Identify the key terms used to describe rich and poor countries. Examine the main problems facing poor countries
3Rich and Poor Countries Developed - DevelopingRich North - Poor SouthFirst World - Third World
4Indicators Birth rate Death rate Infant Mortality Rate Life Expectancy Population Per DoctorLiteracy RateGross Domestic Product (GDP) or Gross National Income (GNI)
5Indicators Birth rate – number of births per 1,000 of the population. Death rate – number of deaths per 1,000 of the population.Infant Mortality Rate – deaths per 1,000 live births (up to age of 1)Life Expectancy – average age a person can expect to live.Population Per Doctor – number of people per doctor.Literacy Rate - % who can read or write.Gross Domestic Product (GDP) or Gross National Income (GNI) – value of goods and/or services. This measures a country’s wealth. The higher the figure the wealthier the country.
6Why Can Some Countries Not Meet Their Needs? In the news we often hear about countries in Africa who are affected by ‘natural disasters’ which cause food shortages or FAMINE e.g*Freak weather conditions*Crop failures*Drought*FloodsHowever many developing countries face the same problems but don’t suffer from famine.
7Why Can Some Countries Not Meet Their Needs? Some countries in Africa face many SOCIAL, POLITICAL and ECONOMIC problems which makes it difficult for them to cope when a crisis occurs.Key Terms:Political - To do with the government and how the country is run.Social - To do with the quality of peoples’ livesEconomic - To do with money, jobs and the economy
8Copy the summary of social, economic and political problems in Africa from pages12-13 of your textbook.
9Problems Facing Developing Countries: HIV/AIDs Aim:Examine the ‘AIDs’ crisis in Africa and the consequences for people.
10Problems Facing Developing Countries: AIDS Africa is currently in the grip of an AIDS epidemic.An estimated 22 million adults and children are living with HIVTwo-thirds of people in the world living with HIV are in Africa.15 million adults have died at a young age or in early middle age (20-40 years).Roughly 0.2% of the UKpopulation are affectedby HIV.
11AIDS Orphans Africa has about 11.6 million AIDs orphans. 95% of AIDs orphans in the world live in Africa.Children end up being cared for by other family members, in orphanages or older children end up on the streets.AIDs orphans are atgreater risk ofmalnutrition, illnessand abuse.
12CONSEQUENCES OF HIV/AIDS Children are orphaned. Grandparents or older brothers/sisters have to care for them.Families lose their wage earner – more likely to face povertyCONSEQUENCES OFHIV/AIDSFall in GDP/GNI(country’s wealth)Loss of key workers e.g. farmers, teachers. This has a negative effect on the economyGreater pressure on health services
13Problems Facing Developing Countries: AIDS ActivitiesRead page 5 then complete Activities 1-3.Study the factfile on page 6.Complete Activities 1-2 on page 7.
14Problems Facing Developing Countries: Debt Aim:Examine how the problem of debt is preventing the development of African countries.
15DebtBy the 1970s many developing countries had borrowed money from developed countries or international organisations to help meet their needs.Many countries have massive debts to repay with crippling interest charges.This often means the wealth of a country is used to repay this debt instead of being spent on services such as health, education etc.
16The World Watches…..In 1984 a harrowing report by the BBC News Correspondent, Michael Buerk showed the plight of millions of starving Ethiopians.Two pop artists – Bob Geldof and Midge Ure persuaded a host of artists to come together and record the Band Aid single ‘Do They Know Its Christmas’ in 1984.
17They also organised a Live Aid concert in July 1985 at Wembley They also organised a Live Aid concert in July 1985 at Wembley hours of live music was provided by various pop artists free of charge.It was watched by 1.5 billion people worldwide and raised £110 million.
18Make Poverty History 2005In 2001 the 8 most powerful countries in the world – G8 – promised to half poverty by 2015.In July 2005 the UK hosted the G8 summit at Gleneagles.With slow progress being made towards this goal there was worldwide campaign by a variety of groups who wanted an end to world poverty.They believed they way to do this was to deal with the problem of DEBT
19This culminated in a serious of events:Live 8 Concerts in 10 countriesWhite wrist band campaign launched by Nelson Mandela.Click TV ads – celebrities such as Brad Pitt, George Clooney and Justine Timberlake took part to show that every 3 seconds someone dies of poverty.Live 8 list – an on-line petition.
20The Final Result:The aim of all these events was to put pressure on world leaders to end poverty and cancel the debts that were crippling developing countries.The G8 leaders agreed to provide an extra £28.8 billion to boost aid and cancel the debts of the poorest nations.
21Problems Facing Developing Countries: Civil War and Armed Conflict Aim:Examine the effects of civil war and armed conflict on African countries.
22Conflict in AfricaIn recent years many African countries have experienced conflict and continue to suffer from the consequences.This includes countries such as Sudan, Somalia and the Democratic Republic of Congo.Often countries get involved in a war with another country.However, civil war – when different groups of people in the same country are fighting one another – is just as damaging.
23People forced to flee their homes and become refugees Children kidnapped and used as child soldiersSexual Abuse and Violence Against Women and Girls – spread of HIVEffects of CivilWar and ArmedConflictLoss of life. Many orphans createdAid convoys hijacked.Roads destroyed – food supplies disruptedLand cannot be farmed due to attacks and landmines‘Scorched earth tactics’
24Problems Facing Developing Countries: Farming Many developing countries have the right climate to grow crops such as tobacco, coffee and cocoa.They then sell or export these ‘cash’ crops to rich countries to make money.However this can mean there is less land to grow food.If the prices of these cash crops fall or there is a poor harvest, less money will be made to repay debts.Export: when a country sells goods or services to another country.
25Problems Facing Developing Countries: Farming Farming methods can also be outdated.Land might be over cultivated and this can lead to smaller harvests.Some countries need to grow crops which are drought resistant or capable of producing a high yield (huge amounts).Many women work on the land in African countries – they are less likely to be educated and aware of new methods.
26Key Problems: Health And Education Aims:Identify the reasons for poor health in African countries.Identify the effects of poor education on African countries.
27How Do We Know That A Country Has a Poor Standard of Health? Low life expectancyHigh infant mortalityExistence of killer diseases e.g. measlesHigh rates of HIV/AIDsPoor access to doctors/medical treatment (primary health care).
28What Are the Solutions to Poor Health? Access to primary health care in the local area (i.e. doctor/nurses).Immunisation against killer diseasesEducation programmes to prevent disease e.g. HIVTackle food shortages – improve peoples’ immune system.Improve basic sanitation e.g. running water/toilets to prevent spread of disease.
29Note Many of the problems faced by African countries are interlinked. This meanssolving problems in one area will have apositive effect on another area e.g.improvements in education will mean thatpeople can be educated about how toprevent certain diseases.
30Multi-Lateral Aid - UN Aims: Identify the aims of the United Nations and its Specialised Agencies.
31Multi-lateral Aid – The UN The UN was set up in 1945 by 50 countries.Its aim is to encourage countries in the world to work together to improve the conditions of people in the world.Today over 127 countries are members of the UN.The UN works through SPECIALISED AGENCIES to help developing countries.
32UN Agencies – Current Examples UNICEF - MalawiProject to treat 3,500 children with malnutrition each month.Medical training for health workers/medicines provided.Feeding programme for under 5s and pregnant mothers.School feeding programme for 500,000 primary children.
33UN Agencies – Current Examples UNICEF - UgandaCampaign to encourage 1.3 million children to attend school.Provided 13,000 teachers, writing materials, sports equipment.Also provides hygiene supplies e.g. soap, toothpaste.
34UN Agencies – Current Examples World Health Organisation (WHO) –GuineaSet up health care centres in local communities.Children can be immunised against killer diseases/given vitamins.Gives people access to a doctor and basic health care.
35UN Specialised Agencies UN AgencyAimsExamples of How It HelpsExamples of Countries
36UN Specialised Agencies Use pages of ‘Alliances and theDeveloping World’ to complete your tableon UN Specialised Agencies.
38UN Agencies – Current Examples UNICEF - EthiopiaTraining for health workers to treat malnourished children.Vaccination against meningitis.FAO - NamibiaGreen Revolution – developing new varieties of plants e.g. maize that will produce a good crop with little rainfallHelping farmers to grow, store andmarket wild fruit trees to providean income.
39UN Agencies – Current Examples UNESCO – Rwanda and AngolaProvided school supplies in countries which have been affected by civil war.WHO – GuineaSet up health care centres to provide basic health care and immunisation.
40The World Food Programme The agency most involved in the fight against hunger.Responds swiftly to humanitarian crises where there are urgent food shortages e.g. ZimbabweAlso works to encourage countries to become self-reliant and be able to grow enough food for their people. This helps to achieve long term food security