Presentation on theme: "Population & Development Revision"— Presentation transcript:
1 Population & Development Revision National Geography
2 What you need to know… Factors Affecting Population Distribution Social, Economic & Combined Development IndicatorsFactors Affecting Birth Rates & Death RatesDescribing Population Pyramids & GraphsProblems & Solutions of Rapid Population GrowthProblems & Solutions of Slow Population GrowthMigration
3 Describe the distribution of people around the world using the map above. Which areas do most/least people live in? (continents/countries)
4 1. Factors Affecting World Population Distribution Population Distribution: The pattern of where we find people on planet Earth. Population Density: Number of people living in a square kilometre. Population distribution is not uniform. It is affected by physical and human factors:PHYSICAL FACTORS:ClimateReliefSoil FertilityResourcesHUMAN FACTORS:AccessibilityEconomyServicesTechnology
5 2. DevelopmentAny improvement that is made in the standard of living of the people is called development. We divide countries into MEDCs and LEDCs.
6 Economic Indicators of Development ProblemsThese measure wealth and industrialisation in a country.Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per personValue of all goods and services provided in a country in one year divided by the population of a country.Energy used per personAmount of coal, oil and gas used in a country.People employed in agricultureA high percentage of people in agriculture is a good indicator of a less developed country.Wealth may not be evenly distributed through a population. A small number may be very wealthy while the rest may be poor.Wealth is not an indication of quality of life e.g. health, education.
7 Social Indicators of Development ProblemsThese show how a country uses its wealth to improve the quality of life of its people. Health: Population per doctor, infant mortality, life expectancy. Diet: Calories per day, protein per person. Education: % of children attending secondary school, adult literacyThey use averages just like economic indicators. They do not tell us about differences within countries.One indicator alone does not give enough information.
8 Combined Development Indicators These use multiple different indicators of development. The aim is to create a more accurate measure of development.Physical Quality of Life Index (PQLI)Life expectancyInfant mortalityAdult literacyHuman Development Index (HDI)Expected years in schoolAverage years in schoolGDP Per Capita
9 3. Population Change LEDC MEDC High Birth Rate: Culture - large familiesLack of education (men & women)Lack of family planning (contraception)High infant mortalityHigh Death Rate:Lack of healthcareLack of educationPoor sanitationPovertyLow Birth Rate:Better educationWoman having careersAccess to family planning/contraceptionLow Death Rate:Better healthcarePensions
10 4. Population Pyramids Old Dependent (+65) Active Population (16-65) Young Dependant(0-15)
13 What is predicted to happen to the structure of the population in Scotland?
14 5. Rapid Population Growth Problems:Solutions:Farms becoming smallerDestruction of natural environmentLand losing fertility due to overuseRapid urban growth – poor housingHigh unemployment – crime rate increasesSchools and hospitals overcrowded.One Child Policy (China)Family planning/sex educationFree contraception (Indonesia)Equal education for womenCash incentives for small familiesVoluntary sterilisation (India)
15 6. Slow Population Growth (The ‘greying’ of the population) Problems:Solutions:More care services are required for old people.Health services strained.Too few people of work age paying taxesSchools/nurseries close down as there are too few young people.Raise the retirement age.Longer paternity leave for new fathers (2 weeks in the UK).Encourage immigration to boost active population.Encourage private pension schemes.
16 7. Migration Push Factors Pull Factors Political Fears Not enough jobs (unemployment)Natural Disasters e.g. droughtShortage of foodFew opportunitiesWarUnhappy lifeImproved living conditionsWarmer climateMedical CareBetter way of lifeBetter EducationBetter HousingFamily links
17 Exam Style QuestionLook at Diagram Q8. Explain the differences between the population structures of Kenya and the United States. 6
18 ANSWERThere is a higher proportion of the population of Kenya under the age of 15 because birth rates are higher in developing countries (1) where fewer women get the chance of an education (1) and there is less use of contraception (1) and information on birth control is less easily accessed (1).There is a larger number of over 60s in the USA because more people have the chance of medical treatment than in Kenya where there is less money to set up health centres and hospitals (2).The high living standards in the USA mean that there are plenty of opportunities for women to have careers and this reduces birth rates (1).Child mortality rates are higher in Kenya so people have many children in order to ensure that some survive (1). Many families in Kenya have lots of children so they can contribute to the family income when old enough and look after them in old age (2).