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Population & Development Revision

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Presentation on theme: "Population & Development Revision"— Presentation transcript:

1 Population & Development Revision
National Geography

2 What you need to know… Factors Affecting Population Distribution
Social, Economic & Combined Development Indicators Factors Affecting Birth Rates & Death Rates Describing Population Pyramids & Graphs Problems & Solutions of Rapid Population Growth Problems & Solutions of Slow Population Growth Migration

3 Describe the distribution of people around the world using the map above. Which areas do most/least people live in? (continents/countries)

4 1. Factors Affecting World Population Distribution
Population Distribution: The pattern of where we find people on planet Earth. Population Density: Number of people living in a square kilometre. Population distribution is not uniform. It is affected by physical and human factors: PHYSICAL FACTORS: Climate Relief Soil Fertility Resources HUMAN FACTORS: Accessibility Economy Services Technology

5 2. Development Any improvement that is made in the standard of living of the people is called development. We divide countries into MEDCs and LEDCs.

6 Economic Indicators of Development
Problems These measure wealth and industrialisation in a country. Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per person Value of all goods and services provided in a country in one year divided by the population of a country. Energy used per person Amount of coal, oil and gas used in a country. People employed in agriculture A high percentage of people in agriculture is a good indicator of a less developed country. Wealth may not be evenly distributed through a population. A small number may be very wealthy while the rest may be poor. Wealth is not an indication of quality of life e.g. health, education.

7 Social Indicators of Development
Problems These show how a country uses its wealth to improve the quality of life of its people. Health: Population per doctor, infant mortality, life expectancy. Diet: Calories per day, protein per person. Education: % of children attending secondary school, adult literacy They use averages just like economic indicators. They do not tell us about differences within countries. One indicator alone does not give enough information.

8 Combined Development Indicators
These use multiple different indicators of development. The aim is to create a more accurate measure of development. Physical Quality of Life Index (PQLI) Life expectancy Infant mortality Adult literacy Human Development Index (HDI) Expected years in school Average years in school GDP Per Capita

9 3. Population Change LEDC MEDC High Birth Rate:
Culture - large families Lack of education (men & women) Lack of family planning (contraception) High infant mortality High Death Rate: Lack of healthcare Lack of education Poor sanitation Poverty Low Birth Rate: Better education Woman having careers Access to family planning/contraception Low Death Rate: Better healthcare Pensions

10 4. Population Pyramids Old Dependent (+65) Active Population (16-65)
Young Dependant (0-15)

11 Developing Country Population Pyramid

12 Developed Country Population Pyramid

13 What is predicted to happen to the structure of the population in Scotland?

14 5. Rapid Population Growth
Problems: Solutions: Farms becoming smaller Destruction of natural environment Land losing fertility due to overuse Rapid urban growth – poor housing High unemployment – crime rate increases Schools and hospitals overcrowded. One Child Policy (China) Family planning/sex education Free contraception (Indonesia) Equal education for women Cash incentives for small families Voluntary sterilisation (India)

15 6. Slow Population Growth (The ‘greying’ of the population)
Problems: Solutions: More care services are required for old people. Health services strained. Too few people of work age paying taxes Schools/nurseries close down as there are too few young people. Raise the retirement age. Longer paternity leave for new fathers (2 weeks in the UK). Encourage immigration to boost active population. Encourage private pension schemes.

16 7. Migration Push Factors Pull Factors Political Fears
Not enough jobs (unemployment) Natural Disasters e.g. drought Shortage of food Few opportunities War Unhappy life Improved living conditions Warmer climate Medical Care Better way of life Better Education Better Housing Family links

17 Exam Style Question Look at Diagram Q8. Explain the differences between the population structures of Kenya and the United States. 6

18 ANSWER There is a higher proportion of the population of Kenya under the age of 15 because birth rates are higher in developing countries (1) where fewer women get the chance of an education (1) and there is less use of contraception (1) and information on birth control is less easily accessed (1). There is a larger number of over 60s in the USA because more people have the chance of medical treatment than in Kenya where there is less money to set up health centres and hospitals (2). The high living standards in the USA mean that there are plenty of opportunities for women to have careers and this reduces birth rates (1). Child mortality rates are higher in Kenya so people have many children in order to ensure that some survive (1). Many families in Kenya have lots of children so they can contribute to the family income when old enough and look after them in old age (2).

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