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18-1 Levels of Development What are developed nations and less developed countries? What are developed nations and less developed countries? How can we.

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Presentation on theme: "18-1 Levels of Development What are developed nations and less developed countries? What are developed nations and less developed countries? How can we."— Presentation transcript:

1 18-1 Levels of Development What are developed nations and less developed countries? What are developed nations and less developed countries? How can we measure development? How can we measure development? What are the characteristics of developed and less developed countries? What are the characteristics of developed and less developed countries? How do we rank levels of development? How do we rank levels of development?

2 Development is the process by which a nation improves the economic, political, and social well- being of its people. Developed Nations and Less Developed Countries Developed Nations Developed nations are nations with higher average levels of material well-being.Developed nations are nations with higher average levels of material well-being. Less Developed Countries Less developed countries (LDCs) are countries with low levels of material well-being (most countries in the world). 3 billion people or half of the worlds population lives in extreme poverty. 1 billion people live on less than $1 a day (the price of a pop).

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4 Measuring Development Per Capita GDP Per capita GDP is a measurement of a nation's GDP divided by its total population. Considered the best measure of economic well-being.Per capita GDP is a measurement of a nation's GDP divided by its total population. Considered the best measure of economic well-being. Energy Consumption How much energy a nation consumes depends on its level of industrialization (oil, gas, etc.)How much energy a nation consumes depends on its level of industrialization (oil, gas, etc.)

5 Measuring Development Labor Force If a nation's labor force is mostly devoted to subsistence agriculture, or raising enough food to feed only their families, there are fewer workers available for industry.If a nation's labor force is mostly devoted to subsistence agriculture, or raising enough food to feed only their families, there are fewer workers available for industry.

6 Measuring Development Consumer Goods The quantity of consumer goods a nation produces per capita can also indicate its level of development.The quantity of consumer goods a nation produces per capita can also indicate its level of development.

7 Measuring Development Literacy A country's literacy rate is the proportion of the population over age 15 that can read and write. Near 100% in U.S.A country's literacy rate is the proportion of the population over age 15 that can read and write. Near 100% in U.S.

8 Measuring Development Life Expectancy Life expectancy is the average expected life span of an individual. It indicates how well an economic system supports life (nutrition, healthcare are key).Life expectancy is the average expected life span of an individual. It indicates how well an economic system supports life (nutrition, healthcare are key).

9 Measuring Development Infant Mortality Rate A country's infant mortality rate indicates the number of deaths that occur in the first year of life per 1,000 live births (LDC’s it’s 62 on average).A country's infant mortality rate indicates the number of deaths that occur in the first year of life per 1,000 live births (LDC’s it’s 62 on average).

10 Characteristics of Developed Nations High per capita GDPs, high consumer spending. High per capita GDPs, high consumer spending. High agricultural output. (1 U.S. farmer feeds 80 people). High agricultural output. (1 U.S. farmer feeds 80 people). High life expectancy, low infant mortality, high literacy. High life expectancy, low infant mortality, high literacy. Developed nations have infrastructure. Infrastructure is the services and facilities necessary for an economy to function (roads, banks, airports, power plants, school, etc.). Developed nations have infrastructure. Infrastructure is the services and facilities necessary for an economy to function (roads, banks, airports, power plants, school, etc.).

11 Characteristics of Less Developed Countries Low per capita GDPs, low energy consumption, low consumer spending. Low per capita GDPs, low energy consumption, low consumer spending. High unemployment - 20% or more. High unemployment - 20% or more. Labor force of subsistence farmers. Labor force of subsistence farmers. Low literacy rates, low life expectancy, high infant mortality rate due to malnutrition and poor healthcare. Low literacy rates, low life expectancy, high infant mortality rate due to malnutrition and poor healthcare.

12 LDC’s and HDC’s Example LDC’s: DR of Congo – GDP per capita=$348 DR of Congo – GDP per capita=$348 Liberia – GDP per capita=$456 Liberia – GDP per capita=$456 Afghanistan – GDP per capita=$956 Afghanistan – GDP per capita=$956 Haiti – GDP per capita=$1,235 Haiti – GDP per capita=$1,235 Example Developed Nations: U.S.A. – GDP per capita=$52,839 U.S.A. – GDP per capita=$52,839 Australia – GDP per capita=$43,042 Australia – GDP per capita=$43,042 Norway –GDP per capita=$55,398 Norway –GDP per capita=$55,398 Japan – GDP per capita=$37,135 Japan – GDP per capita=$37,135

13 Section 1 Assessment 1. Which of the following is a characteristic of a developing country? (a) a high per capita GDP (b) a high number of people employed in industry (c) a low literacy rate (d) low levels of disease 2. Less developed countries have higher infant mortality rates because (a) adult literacy rates are high. (b) their infrastructure is strong. (c) life expectancies are high. (d) nutrition and health care are poor.

14 Section 1 Assessment 1. Which of the following is a characteristic of a developing country? (a) a high per capita GDP (b) a high number of people employed in industry (c) a low literacy rate (d) low levels of disease 2. Less developed countries have higher infant mortality rates because (a) adult literacy rates are high. (b) their infrastructure is strong. (c) life expectancies are high. (d) nutrition and health care are poor.

15 18-2 Issues in Development What are the causes and effects of rapid population growth? What are the causes and effects of rapid population growth? How do supplies of resources and physical capital influence development? How do supplies of resources and physical capital influence development? How important is human capital to development? How important is human capital to development? Why are political factors and debt obstacles to development? Why are political factors and debt obstacles to development?

16 Population Density Imagine what this classroom would be like if we added 5 new students every day, but we kept the same amount of desks, books, etc. that would not increase as fast as the population. Imagine what this classroom would be like if we added 5 new students every day, but we kept the same amount of desks, books, etc. that would not increase as fast as the population.

17 Rapid Population Growth The population growth rate is the increase in a country’s population in a given year expressed as a percentage of the population figure at the start of the year. The population growth rate is the increase in a country’s population in a given year expressed as a percentage of the population figure at the start of the year. If a country’s population doubles, it must also double the following if it is to maintain its current level of development: If a country’s population doubles, it must also double the following if it is to maintain its current level of development: Employment opportunities Employment opportunities Health facilities Health facilities Teachers and schoolrooms Teachers and schoolrooms Industrial output Industrial output Agricultural production Agricultural production Exports and imports Exports and imports

18 Resource Distribution and Physical Capital Resource Distribution In parts of Africa, Asia, and Latin America, physical geography makes development more difficult.In parts of Africa, Asia, and Latin America, physical geography makes development more difficult. Only about 10 percent of the world’s land is arable, or suitable for producing crops.Only about 10 percent of the world’s land is arable, or suitable for producing crops. Physical Capital The lack of economic activity typical of LDCs is due in part to a lack of physical capital. Subsistence agriculture provides little opportunity for individuals or families to save.

19 Human Capital When a country fails to invest in human capital, the supplies of skilled workers, industry leaders, entrepreneurs, government leaders, doctors, and other professionals is limited. Health and Nutrition Health and Nutrition Proper food and nutrition are necessary for physical and mental growth and development. Inadequate nutrition is called malnutrition. Proper food and nutrition are necessary for physical and mental growth and development. Inadequate nutrition is called malnutrition. Education and Training Education and Training To be able to use technology and move beyond mere subsistence, a nation must have an educated work force. To be able to use technology and move beyond mere subsistence, a nation must have an educated work force. “Brain Drain” “Brain Drain” The scientists, engineers, teachers, and entrepreneurs of LDCs are often enticed to the benefits of living in a developed nation. The loss of educated citizens to the developed world is called “brain drain.” The scientists, engineers, teachers, and entrepreneurs of LDCs are often enticed to the benefits of living in a developed nation. The loss of educated citizens to the developed world is called “brain drain.”

20 Political Factors and Debt From Colonial Dependency to Central Planning From Colonial Dependency to Central Planning Many LDCs are former colonies of European powers. Their dependency on their colonizers for manufactured goods hindered their own development. Several LDCs turned to central planning after gaining their independence in an effort to modernize quickly. Many LDCs are former colonies of European powers. Their dependency on their colonizers for manufactured goods hindered their own development. Several LDCs turned to central planning after gaining their independence in an effort to modernize quickly. Government Corruption Government Corruption Corruption in the governments of many LDCs holds back development. Corruption in the governments of many LDCs holds back development. Political Instability Political Instability Civil wars and social unrest prevent the necessary social stability required for sustained development. Civil wars and social unrest prevent the necessary social stability required for sustained development. Debt Debt Rising oil prices in the 1970s and a strong U.S. dollar have made it hard for many LDCs to repay loans. Rising oil prices in the 1970s and a strong U.S. dollar have made it hard for many LDCs to repay loans.

21 Section 2 Assessment 1. How does human capital contribute to development? (a) financiers lend money to developing countries (b) foreigners make investments in another country (c) a skilled work force encourages foreign investment (d) people invest their money in local resources for growth 2. How do factors like climate, mineral resources, and rainfall have an impact on development? (a) Technology can be used to allocate resources differently. (b) Poor climate and rainfall and lack of mineral resources can make development difficult. (c) A country with good climate and resources has no trouble becoming fully developed. (d) These factors seldom have any positive or negative affect on development.

22 Section 2 Assessment 1. How does human capital contribute to development? (a) financiers lend money to developing countries (b) foreigners make investments in another country (c) a skilled work force encourages foreign investment (d) people invest their money in local resources for growth 2. How do factors like climate, mineral resources, and rainfall have an impact on development? (a) Technology can be used to allocate resources differently. (b) Poor climate and rainfall and lack of mineral resources can make development difficult. (c) A country with good climate and resources has no trouble becoming fully developed. (d) These factors seldom have any positive or negative affect on development.


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