Presentation on theme: "Today’s Issues: Africa European colonialism of the 1800s has left most of today’s independent African nations with economic, health, educational, and political."— Presentation transcript:
Today’s Issues: Africa European colonialism of the 1800s has left most of today’s independent African nations with economic, health, educational, and political problems. A soldier stands guard in Goma, Democratic Republic of Congo. NEXT
SECTION 1 Economic Development SECTION 2 Health Care Today’s Issues: Africa Case Study Effects of Colonialism Unit Map: PhysicalUnit Map: Political Unit Atlas: Physical NEXT Unit Atlas: Political
Section 1 Economic Development Africa’s history of colonization has had long-term effects on its economy. Barriers to African economic development include illiteracy, foreign debt, and a lack of manufacturing industries. NEXT
Africa’s Economy Today A History of Problems Most countries do little manufacturing -sell raw materials to industrialized countries European colonizers exploited Africa’s resources, people -millions sold into slavery or died from harsh working conditions Took the strongest Africans out Land was mined, drilled; environment was ignored All this has limited Africa’s economic growth, political stability In 2001, Ghana peacefully elected a new president SECTION 1 Economic Development Continued... NEXT
SECTION 1 continued Africa’s Economy Today Africa’s Economic Status Most African countries are worse off today than in 1960 -average incomes have decreased -worldwide: accounts for 1% of total GNP, 1.5% of exports Rely heavily on raw materials for their income NEXT
On the Road to Development Reducing Debt and Increasing Cooperation Newly independent countries borrowed money to build economies -total debt of sub-Saharan governments was $227 billion by 1997 -many Western leaders push to forgive Africa’s debts Trying to improve economies through regional cooperation -Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) -Southern African Development Community (SADC) -groups promote trade, improvement of infrastructure SECTION 1 NEXT Continued...
SECTION 1 continued On the Road to Development Building Industries “One-commodity” countries rely on export of one or two commodities -commodity—agricultural or mining product that can be sold - value varies daily based on worldwide supply and demand - this makes “one-commodity” nations’ economies unstable Economists want Africans to diversify—create variety in economies -promote manufacturing to achieve economic growth and stabilty East Africa’s Djibouti established shipping center on Gulf of Aden NEXT Map
Educating Workers Improving Education Uneducated populace is a large barrier to economic development Average schooling time for women up only 1.2 years in last 40 years In Angola and Somalia, civil wars have destroyed school systems But in Algeria, 94% get a formal education -83% of Mauritians over 15 are literate SECTION 1 NEXT Reversing the Brain Drain Many professionals migrate to Western nations -International Organization for Migration urges return
Section 2 Health Care Epidemic diseases are killing Africa’s people in huge numbers. African nations and countries around the world are using a variety of methods, including education, to eradicate disease. NEXT
Disease and Despair Serious Diseases Cholera — sometimes fatal infection -spread by poor sanitation, lack of clean water Malaria—often-fatal infectious disease marked by chills, fever -carried by mosquitoes; resistant to drugs due to overuse Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)—caused by HIV virus -70% of adult, 80% of child AIDS cases are in Africa -often paired with tuberculosis—infectious respiratory infection SECTION 2 Health Care NEXT
AIDS Stalks the Continent Africa Bears the Brunt 3 million died from AIDS worldwide in 2000 -2.4 million lived in sub-Saharan Africa In Swaziland, 3 of 4 deaths were from AIDS -life expectancy has fallen from 58 years to 39 In 2000, 26 million people in Africa had HIV or AIDS SECTION 2 NEXT Continued... Map
SECTION 2 continued AIDS Stalks the Continent A High Price to Pay Widespread disease has economic consequences -sick people work less or not at all, earn less, slip into poverty AIDS is lowering South Africa’s GDP -by 2010, it could be 17% lower compared to without AIDS Medical care for AIDS patients is expensive -UNAIDS estimates $4.63 billion needed to fight AIDS in Africa -UNAIDS—United Nations program studying AIDS epidemic NEXT
SECTION 2 continued Nations Respond Strategies Against AIDS South Africa, Brazil work together on AIDS prevention, care -Brazil has public health policies to fight AIDS, other diseases -Brazil’s policies are considered a model for developing nations NEXT Continued...
SECTION 2 continued Nations Respond Success Stories Uganda and Senegal have reduced spread of HIV -in 1997, Uganda offers same-day HIV tests, education programs -infection rates among 15 to 24 year olds have dropped 50% Senegal controls spread of AIDS with intensive education program -infection rates have been below 2% since mid- 1980s UNAIDS says HIV infection rates in sub-Saharan Africa are down -1999–2000: dropped by 200,000 cases, but figure may be misleading NEXT