Vocab: 10 - Answer An accumulation of cells (that don’t have the correct function for that area)
Vocab: 20 Which word describes when a tumor is considered to be dangerous? (that may eventually spread to other tissues) ANSWER
Vocab: 20 - Answer A malignant tumor
Vocab: 30 What is the word that describes when cells from a malignant tumor have gained the ability to spread to different tissues in the body? ANSWER
Vocab: 30 - Answer Metastasis
Vocab: 40 What is the name of the technique that separates macromolecules (like DNA or proteins) based on their rate of movement through a gel? ANSWER
Vocab: 40 - Answer Gel Electrophoresis
Vocab: 50 What is a carcinogen? Name two examples also. ANSWER
Vocab: 50 - Answer A carcinogen is a cancer- causing agent. Examples: Asbestos, benzene, chemicals in tobacco smoke, some viruses, types of radiation like x-rays and UV
Cancer : 10 True or False: Cancer cells have a controlled rate of cell division. ANSWER
Cancer : 10 - Answer False: All cells should have a controlled rate of cell division. Cancer cells have lost the ability to control division.
Cancer : 20 Name two types of cells that normally divide rapidly and one that does not. ANSWER
Cancer : 20 - Answer Divide rapidly: Skin, hair, blood, and gut lining cells. Divide slowly or once: Liver, Nerve cells
Cancer : 30 Name the two types of genes that regulate cell division within cells. ANSWER
Cancer : 30 - Answer Proto oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes
Cancer : 40 Why is it true that your risk for getting cancer increases with age? ANSWER
Cancer : 40 - Answer Exposure to carcinogens is cumulative, meaning the longer you’re exposed the greater your risk. Cancer is usually not cause by just one mutation – it’s cause by many.
Cancer : 50 What specifically makes cancer cells so harmful to the other cells around them? ANSWER
Cancer : 50 - Answer Cancer cells are undifferentiated, meaning they don’t do the job they are supposed to. All of their energy goes into dividing and they require a lot of nutrients to do so, thus they are using up the nutrients faster and essentially stealing them from nearby cells.
Biotechnology : 10 What units do micropipettes measure in? ANSWER
Biotechnology : 10 - Answer Microliters ɥ L
Biotechnology : 20 Which direction would DNA move in a gel electrophoresis box? How do you know? ANSWER
Biotechnology : 20 - Answer DNA would move toward the positive end (the anode) because it is negatively charged.
Biotechnology : 30 Name three properties that affect the rate of movement of molecules through agarose gel. ANSWER
Biotechnology : 40 What property of the agarose gel makes it useful to sort molecules by properties such as size and shape? ANSWER
Biotechnology : 40 - Answer Agarose gels contain microscopic pores that act as sieves (they sort the molecules because it’s easier for some molecules to work their way through the pores).
Biotechnology : 50 What is the purpose of the buffer used in gel electrophoresis? ANSWER
Biotechnology : 50 - Answer The buffer serves to make the water a better conductor of electricity and to control the pH.
DNA Fingerprinting : 10 Which fragment could you state is the smallest out of all of the fragments on this DNA fingerprint? (Could be from any lane) ANSWER
DNA Fingerprinting : 10 - Answer The band that is farthest from the wells is the smallest.
DNA Fingerprinting : 20 What is the purpose of restriction enzymes? ANSWER
DNA Fingerprinting : 20 - Answer Restriction enzymes cut DNA at specific sequences. (Thus making different sized fragments of DNA that will make different bands on the gel)
DNA Fingerprinting : 30 Who committed the crime? How do you know? ANSWER
DNA Fingerprinting : 30 - Answer Bubba – his DNA fingerprint matches the DNA from the crime scene
DNA Fingerprinting : 40 What would have to be true for this Man to be the child’s father? ANSWER
DNA Fingerprinting : 40 - Answer Half of the child’s DNA bands would match the mother’s and the other half would match the Man’s. Since it doesn’t, the man is not the father.
DNA Fingerprinting : 50 Why do we use the control DNA (in lane 2) to help us determine if Valerie has the mutation characteristic of Li- Fraumeni syndrome? ANSWER
DNA Fingerprinting : 50 - Answer The control test tube is used to compare if she has any normal p53 tumor suppressor genes. In her blood and normal breast tissue she is heterozygous meaning she has one normal gene and one mutated.
Miscellaneous: 10 In which phase do cells spend most of their time in during the cell cycle? ANSWER
Miscellaneous: 10 - Answer Interphase
Miscellaneous: 20 What word describes when a tumor is considered to be harmless because it does not spread to other tissues of the body? ANSWER
Miscellaneous: 20 - Answer Benign
Miscellaneous: 30 Name three types of treatment for cancer. ANSWER
Miscellaneous: 30 - Answer Surgery Radiation Therapy Chemotherapy
Miscellaneous: 40 Describe the difference between radiation therapy and chemotherapy. ANSWER
Miscellaneous: 40 - Answer Radiation therapy is where physicians use radiation to burn or kill cells in a specific area. Chemotherapy is the use of chemicals/medication to systematically kill cells that are rapidly dividing.
Miscellaneous: 50 Name two reasons for why it is important to stay within the designated range of the micropipette. ANSWER
Miscellaneous: 50 - Answer 1.So you don’t damage the micropipette 2.It is more accurate to pipette within the range.