Presentation on theme: "CONNECTORS A conjunction may be used to indicate the"— Presentation transcript:
1CONNECTORS A conjunction may be used to indicate the relationship between the ideas expressed in aclause and the ideas expressed in the rest of asentence.Examples:We could go to the library, or we could go tothe park.He neither finished his homework nor studiedfor the test.I went out because the sun was shining.
2Coordinate conjunctions Coordinate conjunctions are used to join two similargrammatical constructions; for instance, two words,two phrases or two clauses.Examples:My friend and I will attend the meeting.Austria is famous for the beauty of its landscape andthe hospitality of its people.The sun rose and the birds began to sing.In these examples, the coordinate conjunction and is used to join two words/two phrases/and two clauses.
3and = in additionShe tried and succeeded.but = howeverThey tried but did not succeed.or = alternativelyDid you go out or stay at home?nor = and neitherI did not see it, nor did they.(Note the use of inverted word order)yet = howeverThe sun is warm, yet the air is cool.
4Coordinate conjunctions As illustrated above, when a coordinateconjunction joins two verbs which have the samesubject, the subject need not be repeated.For instance, in the example she tried andsucceeded, the pronoun she acts as the subjectfor both the verb tried and the verb succeeded.It should also be noted that when a coordinateconjunction joins two verbs which do not havethe same subject, the two coordinate clausesmay be separated by a comma or semicolon, inorder to make the meaning clear.
5Correlative conjunctions Correlative conjunctions are used in pairs, inorder to show the relationship between theideas expressed in different parts of asentence. For instance, in the followingexample, the expression either ... or is usedto indicate that the ideas expressed in thetwo clauses represent two alternative choices of action.Example:Either you should study harder, or youshould take a different course.
6Correlative conjunctions both ... andHe is both intelligent and good-natured.either ... orI will either go for a walk or read a book.neither ... norHe is neither rich nor famous.hardly ... whenHe had hardly begun to work, when he was interrupted.if ... thenIf that is true, then what happened is not surprising.(Note that in this construction the word then can usually be omitted.)
7Correlative conjunctions no sooner ... thanNo sooner had I reached the corner, than the bus came.not only ... but alsoShe is not only clever, but also hard-working.rather ... thanI would rather go swimming than go to the library.scarcely ... whenScarcely had we left home, when it started to rain.whether ... orHave you decided whether you will come or not?
8Subordinate conjunctions Subordinate clauses may begin withrelative pronouns such as that, what,which, who and whom, as well as withwords such as how, when, where, wherever and why.Examples:The house, which stood on a hill, could beseen for miles.I wonder how he did that.
9In addition, subordinate clauses may also begin with words which are commonly referred to as subordinate conjunctionsAs1. = because: As he is my friend, I will help him.2. = when: We watched as the plane took off.After1. = later in time: After the train left, we went home.Although or though1. = in spite of the fact that: Although it wasafter midnight, we did not feel tired.Before1. = earlier than: I arrived before the storeswere open.
10In addition, subordinate clauses may also begin with words which are commonly referred to as subordinate conjunctionsBecause1. = for the reason that: We had to wait, because we arrived early.For1. = because: He is happy, for he enjoys his work.If1. = on condition that:If she is here, we will see her.Providing or provided1. = on condition that: All will be well, providing youare careful.
11In addition, subordinate clauses may also begin with words which are commonly referred to as subordinate conjunctionsSince1. = from a past time: I have been here since the sun rose.2. = as, because: Since you are here, you can help me.So or so that1. = consequently: It was raining, so we did not go out.2. = in order that/purpose: I am saving money so I can buy a bicycle.Note: When used with the meaning in order that, sois usually followed by that in formal English.e.g. I am saving money so that I can buy a bicycle.
12Supposing1. = if: Supposing that happens, what will you do?Than1. = used in comparisons: He is taller than you are.Unless1. = except when, if not: Unless he helps us, we cannot succeed.Until or till1. = up to the time when:! I will wait until I hearfrom you.
13Whereas1. = because: Whereas this is a public building, it isopen to everyone.2. = on the other hand: He is short, whereas you are tall.Whether1. = if: I do not know whether she was invited.While1. = at the time when:! While it was snowing, weplayed cards.2. = on the other hand:! He is rich, while his friend ispoor.3. = although: While I am not an expert, I will do mybest.
14In addition, the following phrases are often used at the beginning of subordinate clauses. As if1.= in a similar way: She talks as if she knows everything.As long as1. = if: As long as we cooperate, we can finish the work easily.2. = while: He has lived there as long as I have known him.As soon as1.= immediately when: Write to me as soon as you can.As though1. = in a similar way: It looks as though there will be a storm.
15In addition, the following phrases are often used at the beginning of subordinate clauses. Even if1. = in spite of a possibility: I am going out even if it rains.In case1. = because of a possibility: Take a sweater in case it gets cold.Or else1. = otherwise: Please be careful, or else you may have an accident.So as to1. = in order to: I hurried so as to be on time.
16Connecting adverbsConnecting adverbs are often used to show the relationshipbetween the ideas expressed in a clause and the ideasexpressed in a preceding clause, sentence or paragraph.Examples:I wanted to study; however, I was too tired.We knew what to expect. Therefore, we were not surprised atwhat happened.In the first example, the connecting adverb however showsthat there is a conflict between the idea expressed in theclause I was too tired and the idea expressed in thepreceding clause I wanted to study. In the second example,the connecting adverb therefore shows that there is a causeand effect relationship between the idea expressed in thesentence we knew what to expect, and the clause we werenot surprised at what happened.
17Connecting adverbs b. Connecting adverbs used to connect sentences. Unlike conjunctions, connecting adverbs may be used in formal English toshow the relationship between ideas expressed in separate sentences.For example:The wind was strong. Thus, I felt very cold.In this example, the connecting adverb thus shows that there is a causeand effect relationship between the ideas expressed by the twosentences the wind was strong and I felt very cold.In informal English, coordinate conjunctions are sometimes used to showthe relationship between the ideas expressed in separate sentences.The wind was strong. And I felt very cold.However, this use of coordinate conjunctions is considered to begrammatically incorrect in formal English.
18Connecting adverbs c. Position in a clause A subordinate conjunction must usually be placed at the beginningof a clause. However, a connecting adverb may be placed at thebeginning, in the middle, or at the end of a clause. This isillustrated below.Examples:His visit was unexpected. Nevertheless, I was pleased to see him.His visit was unexpected. I was, nevertheless, pleased to see him.His visit was unexpected. I was pleased to see him, nevertheless.
19d. Examples of connecting adverbs The following are examples of words which may be used as connecting adverbs. Each connecting adverb is followed by its meaning and an example of its use.Accordingly = soHe was very persuasive; accordingly, I did what he asked.Also = in additionShe is my neighbor; she is also my best friend.Besides = in additionI like the job. Besides, I need the money.Consequently = soShe had a fever; consequently, she stayed at home.Furthermore = in additionYou should stop smoking. Furthermore, you should do it at once!Hence =! for that reason!He is a good friend. Hence, I was not embarrassed to ask him for help.
20d. Examples of connecting adverbs The following are examples of words which may be used as connecting adverbs. Each connecting adverb is followed by its meaning and an example of its use.However = butWe wanted to arrive on time; however, we were delayed by traffic.Likewise = in additionThe region is beautiful. Likewise, the climate is excellent.Moreover = in additionShe is very intelligent; moreover, she is very ambitious.Nevertheless = butThey are proud. Nevertheless, I like them.nonetheless = butThe ascent was dangerous. Nonetheless, he decided to attempt it.otherwise = if not, or elseWe should consult them; otherwise, they may be upset.
21Parallel construction The repetition of a particular grammatical constructionis often referred to as parallel construction.Examples:I am neither angry nor excited.The resort contains tennis courts, swimming pools and asnack bar.In the first example, the two phrases neither angry and nor excited exhibitparallel construction.In the second example, the three phrases tennis courts,swimming pools and a snack bar exhibit parallel construction.
22Parallel construction The following example illustrates the use of parallel constructionwith the correlative conjunctions neither ... nor.e.g. Incorrect: She turned neither right nor to the left.Corrected: She turned neither right nor left.orCorrected: She turned neither to the right nor to the left.The first sentence is incorrect, since neither is followed by asingle word; whereas nor is followed by a prepositional phrase.The second sentence has been corrected by changing the phraseto the left to the word left. Alternatively, as shown in the thirdsentence, two prepositional phrases can be used.
23Parallel construction Parallel construction should also be used when listing a series ofideas.For example:Incorrect: The hotel is charming, well-situated and is not expensive.Corrected: The hotel is charming, well-situated and inexpensive.The first sentence is incorrect, since the first two items in theseries, charming and well-situated, are adjectives, whereas thelast item, is not expensive, contains a verb.The second sentence has been corrected by changing is notexpensive to the adjective inexpensive.
24Parallel construction The following is another example of the use of parallelconstruction when listing a series of ideas.Incorrect: I like to ski, skating and swimming.Corrected: I like skiing, skating and swimming.The first sentence is incorrect, since the first item inthe series, to ski, is an infinitive, whereas the secondand third items, skating and swimming, are gerunds. Thesecond sentence has been corrected by changing theinfinitive to ski to the gerund skiing.
25d. Examples of connecting adverbs The following are examples of words which may be used as connecting adverbs. Each connecting adverb is followed by its meaning and an example of its use.Still = butIt is a long way to the beach. Still, it is a fine day to go swimming.then:1. = next, afterwardsWe went shopping, then we had lunch.2. = soIf you are sure, then I must believe you.Therefore = for that reasonI was nervous; therefore, I could not do my best.Thus = so, in this way!He travelled as quickly as possible. Thus, he reached Boston thenext day.