Adjectives and Adverbs
Adjective Adjectives answer the following questions: How many/much?
A word that describes a noun or pronoun. It adds meaning to the sentence, but it is not necessary. Therefore, you can take it out and the sentence will still be correct. Adjectives are usually in front of the words they modify. Adjectives answer the following questions: How many/much? Which one? What kind?
Kinds of Adjectives Articles Adjectives Predicate Adjectives
Proper Adjectives a, an, the Words used to describe any noun or pronoun. Words after linking verbs used to describe the SUBJECT. Adjectives that are capitalized.
Example Adjectives Beautiful Pretty Handsome Clear Bright Bold
Fast-paced German Colorful Easy Comfortable Tasty Delicious Creative Intelligent Convertible
Example P.A. The tornado was terrible. subject – tornado
linking verb – was P.A. – terrible (It describes the tornado.)
Predicate Adjective Adjective Follows a linking verb
Describes the subject
Example Proper Adjective
A proper adjective is an adjective that is formed from a proper noun. It is usually a word that refers to a language or nationality. I love Japanese food! Japanese is a proper adjective formed from the proper noun Japan. My aunt and uncle are German. German is a proper adjective formed from the proper noun Germany.
Weird Adjectives Sometimes nouns can be used as adjectives.
For example: Gym can be both a noun and an adjective. 1. The gym smelled awful after basketball practice. (In this case gym is a noun.) 2. The gym doors squeak when they are opened. (In this case gym is an adjective. It describes which doors.)
Weird Adjectives Sometimes pronouns can be adjectives.
For example: Possessive pronouns are usually used as adjectives. (my, mine, your, yours, her, hers, his, its, our, ours, their, theirs) Our mission was to save the human race. (In this case our is used to describe which mission; it is an adjective.)
Weird Adjectives Sometimes verbs can be adjectives. For example haunted can be both a verb and an adjective. (Hint: verbs being used as adjectives usually end with “ed” or “ing”, but it does not HAVE to be an adjective they can still be verbs. You have to see how it is used in the sentence.) 1. The creepy house was haunted. (In this case haunted is a verb. It shows a state of being.) 2. The haunted house was creepy. (In this case haunted is an adjective. It tells which house was creepy.)
Adverbs Adverbs are words used to describe verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs. They usually end with “ly.” Adverbs can be in front of, in between, and behind the words they modify. (see examples) Adverbs answer the questions: How? When? Where? To What Extent?
Example Adverbs Here There Now Later Horribly Accurately Very Always
Yesterday Today Too Daily Never Not Completely Rarely
Example Adverb Sentences
She completely finished her homework. She is completely finished with her homework. She is finished with her homework, completely. Adverb before the verb. Adverb in between the verb. Adverb after the verb. Take note of the comma. In all of the sentences completely tells to what extent she is finished with her homework.
Comparison Using Adjectives and Adverbs
Positive – use when only one thing is being described (no ending) Comparative – use when comparing two things (more or “er”) Superlative – use when comparing more than two things (most or “est”)
Comparative Compares two things
If the word is one syllable, add “er” or “ier” to the end of the adjective or adverb (there are a few exceptions). If the word is more than one syllable, add “more” in front of the adjective or adverb.
Superlative Compares three or more things
If the word is one syllable, add “est” or “iest” to the end of the adjective or adverb (there are a few exceptions). If the word is more than one syllable, add “most” in front of the adjective or adverb.
Example Comparisons Positive Comparative Superlative Dark Darker
Darkest Fancy Fancier Fanciest Difficult More difficult Most difficult Quickly More quickly Most quickly Funny Funnier Funniest
Good – Always an adjective (use after linking verbs unless you are referring to someone’s health, then use well.) Bad – Always an adjective Real – Always an adjective Well – used as an adverb unless you are referring to someone’s health then it is an adjective Badly – Always an adverb Really – Always an adverb
Double Negatives Never use two negative words in a sentence. Just like when you multiply negative numbers in math, two negative words create a positive. For example: We don’t have no homework. Really means you have homework. The correct sentence is: We don’t have any homework. Negative words Scarcely Hardly Barely No Never Neither Nobody None No one Not (n’t) Nothing Nowhere
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