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Victims and Victimization SOC 112 Part 4. Violence in America 1. More violent crime than any other country - definition: “Threat, attempt, or use of physical.

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Presentation on theme: "Victims and Victimization SOC 112 Part 4. Violence in America 1. More violent crime than any other country - definition: “Threat, attempt, or use of physical."— Presentation transcript:

1 Victims and Victimization SOC 112 Part 4

2 Violence in America 1. More violent crime than any other country - definition: “Threat, attempt, or use of physical force by one “Threat, attempt, or use of physical force by one or more persons that results in physical or non- or more persons that results in physical or non- physical harm to one or more other persons.” physical harm to one or more other persons.” a. Force - blow / wound to body - blow / wound to body - any weapon / any means - any weapon / any means b. Threat

3 Violence, cont. - means to accomplish - means to accomplish c. Attempt - tries to injure / kill - tries to injure / kill d. Injuries from minor to lethal 2. Defining violence - identifying behaviors is difficult - violence to one / different to another - violence to one / different to another

4 Violence, cont. a. Violence to people a. Violence to people - may fit definition you have - may fit definition you have (1) Suspect going to assault me (1) Suspect going to assault me - shoot and kill - violence? (2) Fight at football game (Decatur, Illinois) (2) Fight at football game (Decatur, Illinois) - African-American youth - scuffle (Jesse Jackson)

5 Violence, cont. (3) Arson of abandoned building (3) Arson of abandoned building - violent crime? - transient? (4) Shooting at road signs (4) Shooting at road signs - violent crime? - innocent bystander? b. Violence to animal b. Violence to animal - animal cruelty? - animal cruelty?

6 Violence, cont. c. What the law says - listed in penal code - listed in penal code - 3 strikes law = violent crime - 3 strikes law = violent crime - death penalty = violent crime - death penalty = violent crime d. Act / intent - act legislated a crime - act legislated a crime - person intend to commit - person intend to commit e. Crime / violence viewed differently - crime / should be a crime / how serious - crime / should be a crime / how serious

7 Violence, cont. 3. Classification - three types a. Individual - violence against the person - violence against the person b. Interpersonal - against smaller group / are known - against smaller group / are known c. Collective - large number of people / unknown - large number of people / unknown

8 Patterns and Trends in Violence 1. Historical patterns - every aspect of our existence a. 1760s – 1770s - nation conceived in violence - nation conceived in violence - Boston Massacre / Boston Tea Party - Boston Massacre / Boston Tea Party - Revolutionary War - Revolutionary War b. Colonial to present: - characterized struggle of American groups - characterized struggle of American groups

9 Patterns, cont. - White / Indian wars - White / Indian wars - White / Black confrontations - White / Black confrontations - Ethnic rivalries - Ethnic rivalries - Agrarian uprisings - Agrarian uprisings - laborers against industrialists - laborers against industrialists c. Right to life / animal rights c. Right to life / animal rights - both use violence - both use violence 2. Reasons for violence - preserve favored social / economic / or political

10 Patterns, cont. a. Began with Revolutionary War - “the end justifies the means” - “the end justifies the means” - was sanctified / was just - was sanctified / was just b. Americans have never been loath to employ the most unremitting violence in the interest of the most unremitting violence in the interest of any cause deemed a good one any cause deemed a good one 3. Civil War – violent in its own right - spin off of violence: pervasive

11 Patterns, cont. a. Latter part of 19 th century - KKK / White Caps / Bald Knobbers / Lynch - KKK / White Caps / Bald Knobbers / Lynch mobs / night-riders / feudists / outlaws mobs / night-riders / feudists / outlaws b. Much traceable to Civil War - surge in domestic violence - surge in domestic violence - racial strife - racial strife - guerilla raiders (Cantrell) - guerilla raiders (Cantrell) c. Lynch Law - became prominent - became prominent

12 Patterns, cont. - “The practice or custom by which persons are punished for real or alleged crimes without due process of law.” - “The practice or custom by which persons are punished for real or alleged crimes without due process of law.” d. Colonel Charles Lynch (1767) - 39 lashes / Tory sympathizers - 39 lashes / Tory sympathizers e. Continued into 19 th century - synonymous with hangings - synonymous with hangings - organized / spontaneous lynch mob - organized / spontaneous lynch mob - together briefly / then breaks up - together briefly / then breaks up

13 Patterns, cont. f. After Civil War - lynch mobs employed throughout country - lynch mobs employed throughout country - whites as well as blacks - whites as well as blacks - primarily: southern blacks - primarily: southern blacks to 1903: 1,985 blacks lynched to 1903: 1,985 blacks lynched - predominate in South / not restricted - predominate in South / not restricted g. Necktie party - North and West - North and West - vigilantes - vigilantes

14 Patterns, cont. 4. Vigilantism - first phase - before Civil War a. Frontier rustlers - every state west of Appalachians' - every state west of Appalachians' - organized / relentless - organized / relentless - a lot east of Mississippi River - a lot east of Mississippi River b. Reestablish old social structure - sanctity of property / law and order - sanctity of property / law and order

15 Patterns, cont. c. Frontier elite - ranchers in control - ranchers in control - social values / preferences - social values / preferences - cattle vs. sheep - cattle vs. sheep d. Included: - congressmen / governors / lawyers / capitalists - congressmen / governors / lawyers / capitalists - young rancher from No. Dakota - young rancher from No. Dakota - begged to be admitted / band forming - begged to be admitted / band forming

16 Patterns, cont. 5. Indian wars - longest / most remorseless in history - Indians vs. whites a. Tidewaters of Virginia (1607) - continued almost 300 years - continued almost 300 years - Wounded Knee, So. Dakota (1890) - Wounded Knee, So. Dakota (1890) b. No other factor - more brutalizing influence - more brutalizing influence - “just wars” - “just wars”

17 Patterns, cont. - promoting superior western civilization - promoting superior western civilization - east coast outraged / scalping of whites - east coast outraged / scalping of whites c. Plenty of room: settlement - reimbursed Native Americans - reimbursed Native Americans - lived side by side - lived side by side d. Took by force - Sioux Indians: moved to Black Hills - Sioux Indians: moved to Black Hills - gold discovered - gold discovered

18 Patterns, cont. e. Paiute Indians (Chief Joseph) - fleeing to Canada / would accept them - fleeing to Canada / would accept them - had to kill all - had to kill all f. Cherokee Indians (Trail of Tears) - moved to Oklahoma reservation - moved to Oklahoma reservation - oil discovered - oil discovered g. Apache Indians (Geronimo) - lied to / moved to Florida - lied to / moved to Florida

19 Patterns, cont. h. Conflict even today - AIM (1973): Wounded Knee - AIM (1973): Wounded Knee i. Boldt decision salmon fishing salmon fishing j. Casino gambling - on and off reservation - on and off reservation k. Mineral / oil deposits - cheating Native Americans - cheating Native Americans

20 Patterns, cont. 1. Racial violence: Blacks / Whites - unequaled in persistence - primary factor: history of US violence a. First slave uprising? - New York City (1711/12) - New York City (1711/12) - put down / great ruthlessness - put down / great ruthlessness - slavery also in North - slavery also in North b. New York City (1741): slave conspiracy - rumors / hysterical rampage - rumors / hysterical rampage

21 Patterns, cont. c. Pressure: religious groups / freedom fighters - slavery illegal in North - slavery illegal in North - state / federal officials against slavery - state / federal officials against slavery d. South continued to imprison - economic / racist decisions - economic / racist decisions - land owners = free labor - land owners = free labor - whites were superior race - whites were superior race e. Civil War - brother against brother - brother against brother

22 Patterns, cont. - death: tens of thousands - death: tens of thousands - destruction: cities / towns - destruction: cities / towns - death of a President - death of a President 2. After the war - end of slavery - slave patrols - black codes a. South developed special organization - deal with black Americans - deal with black Americans

23 Patterns, cont. - Ku Klux Klan - Ku Klux Klan - most consistent feature of American violence - most consistent feature of American violence past 140 years (3 periods) past 140 years (3 periods) b. First: intimidation - those working for reconstruction - those working for reconstruction - freemen: accept renewed rule of whites - freemen: accept renewed rule of whites - violence / threats used by ‘Old Confederacy’ - violence / threats used by ‘Old Confederacy’ c. Second: strength / growth - Atlanta (1915) - Atlanta (1915)

24 Patterns, cont. - unlike predecessor / successor - unlike predecessor / successor - beyond borders of old confederacy - beyond borders of old confederacy (1) Blacks secondary targets (1) Blacks secondary targets - Klan against: Catholics / Jews - Klan against: Catholics / Jews (2) Focus: white Anglo-Saxon Protestants (2) Focus: white Anglo-Saxon Protestants - those who accepted black Americans - those who accepted black Americans - whippings / torture / murder - whippings / torture / murder - anger towards their own - anger towards their own

25 Patterns, cont. d. Third: against civil rights / desegregation - resurgence restricted to South - resurgence restricted to South - violence: supporters of civil rights - violence: supporters of civil rights (1) Jim Crow laws (1) Jim Crow laws - separate restrooms / drinking fountains - separate restrooms / drinking fountains - stores for whites only - stores for whites only - back of bus / give up seat - back of bus / give up seat (2) Used police / courts: legitimize (2) Used police / courts: legitimize - deny parade permits / use police brutality - deny parade permits / use police brutality

26 Patterns, cont. 3. Rioting throughout history - Boston Tea Party thru today - race riots / labor riots / abortion riots / sexual equality riots / religious riots / etc. equality riots / religious riots / etc. a. Characterized by continuous violence - often intense - often intense b. Results: negative / positive (1) Negative: (1) Negative:

27 Patterns, cont. - prison violence / concert violence / - prison violence / concert violence / school violence / demonstration violence / school violence / demonstration violence / Indian violence / abortion violence Indian violence / abortion violence (2) Positive: (2) Positive: - revolutionary violence (independence) / civil war violence (freeing the slaves) / civil war violence (freeing the slaves) / vigilante violence (frontier stabilization) vigilante violence (frontier stabilization) 4. Part of our value structure - grew up on violence

28 Patterns, cont. - gained our societal positions a. Rejected by majority - believe still necessary - believe still necessary b. Peaceful assembly / legal system - did not work - did not work c. Resort to: - age-old tradition of rioting - age-old tradition of rioting

29 Problems of Crime Victims 1. National Crime Victimization Survey - 24 million victimizations occur annually a. Economic loss - property / productivity: 100’s of billions - property / productivity: 100’s of billions (1) System loss (1) System loss - justice system / legal / treatment: total cost - justice system / legal / treatment: total cost $450 billion - $1,800 per US citizen - $1,800 per US citizen - psychological / social problems result - psychological / social problems result

30 Problems, cont. b. System abuse - additional victimization by justice system - additional victimization by justice system (calloused police / prosecutor / counselors) (calloused police / prosecutor / counselors) - victimization by medical profession - victimization by medical profession (adverse treatment of rape victims) (adverse treatment of rape victims) c. Long-term stress - suffer stress / anxiety long after incident - suffer stress / anxiety long after incident - adolescent: lower self-esteem / higher risk - adolescent: lower self-esteem / higher risk - spousal abuse: physical / psychological - spousal abuse: physical / psychological

31 Problems, cont. d. Fear - fundamental life change / become suspicious - fundamental life change / become suspicious - violent crime most effected - violent crime most effected e. Antisocial behavior - more likely to commit crimes - more likely to commit crimes - neglect / physical-sexual abuse as a child: - neglect / physical-sexual abuse as a child: increase odds a victim will later be arrested increase odds a victim will later be arrested (1) “Cycle of violence” (1) “Cycle of violence”

32 Patterns, cont. - abuse/crime phenomenon - abuse/crime phenomenon (2) More likely to engage in violent behavior: (2) More likely to engage in violent behavior: - target of physical abuse - target of physical abuse - exposed to violent behavior among adults - exposed to weapons - exposed to violent behavior among adults - exposed to weapons 2. Nature of victimization a. Social ecology - take place in open / public areas - take place in open / public areas

33 Patterns, cont. - commercial (daytime / early evening) - commercial (daytime / early evening) - more serious: after 6 p.m. - more serious: after 6 p.m. - less serious: during the day - less serious: during the day b. Victim’s household - black / western / urban = most vulnerable - black / western / urban = most vulnerable - white / northeastern / rural = less vulnerable - white / northeastern / rural = less vulnerable - home owner’s = less vulnerable than renters - home owner’s = less vulnerable than renters c. Victim characteristics

34 Pattern, cont. (1) Gender (1) Gender - males more likely (rape / sexual assault) - males more likely (rape / sexual assault) - females: someone they know - females: someone they know - males: strangers - males: strangers - gender differences = narrowing - gender differences = narrowing (2) Age (2) Age - tied to lifestyle - tied to lifestyle - young people: greater victimization - young people: greater victimization - elderly: fraud / scams - elderly: fraud / scams - elder abuse: up 150% since elder abuse: up 150% since 1986

35 Pattern, cont. (3) Social status (3) Social status - poor: more likely violent / property crime - poor: more likely violent / property crime - wealthy: highest for personal theft crimes - wealthy: highest for personal theft crimes (4) Marital status (4) Marital status - never married: victimized more - never married: victimized more - widows / widowers: lowest risk - widows / widowers: lowest risk (5) Race and ethnicity (5) Race and ethnicity - blacks more likely than whites - blacks more likely than whites - black victimization: declining - black victimization: declining

36 Pattern, cont. (6) Repeat victimization (6) Repeat victimization - prior victims: higher chance future crime - prior victims: higher chance future crime - chronic / repeat: personal characteristic - chronic / repeat: personal characteristic (a) Target vulnerability - physical / psychological weakness - physical / psychological weakness - makes easy target - makes easy target (b) Target gratifiability - attractive possessions offender wants - attractive possessions offender wants - clothing / car / etc. - clothing / car / etc.

37 Patterns, cont. (3) Target antagonism (3) Target antagonism - characteristics: make offender angry / - characteristics: make offender angry / jealous jealous - smart / good looking / popular / etc. - smart / good looking / popular / etc. 3. Victims and their criminals - most crimes: single offender over age 20 - tend to be intra-racial - relatives / acquaintances: over 50% violent crime - common among family members (siblicide) - common among family members (siblicide)

38 Theories of Victimization 1. Victim Precipitation Theory - people invite the confrontation a. Active precipitation - victim acts provocatively - victim acts provocatively - fighting words / threats / attack first - fighting words / threats / attack first b. Passive precipitation - exhibits personal characteristic unknowingly - exhibits personal characteristic unknowingly - threatens / encourages attacker - threatens / encourages attacker

39 Theories, cont. 2. Lifestyle Theory - increases exposure to criminal offenders a. High-risk lifestyles - drinking / drugs / crime / runaways - drinking / drugs / crime / runaways b. Victims and criminals - criminal career: predispose one to be a victim - criminal career: predispose one to be a victim 3.Deviant Place Theory

40 Theories, cont. - victim prone: live in socially disorganized - victim prone: live in socially disorganized high-crime area high-crime area a. Deviant places are poor - densely populated - densely populated - highly transient neighborhoods - highly transient neighborhoods b. Residents try to protect - they live with motivated offenders - they live with motivated offenders - or they try to move - or they try to move

41 Theories, cont. 4. Routine Activities Theory - volume / distribution of predatory crime - related to interaction of 3 variables: a. Availability of suitable targets - homes with salable goods - homes with salable goods b. Absence of capable guardians - police / homeowners / neighbors / friends / - police / homeowners / neighbors / friends / relatives relatives

42 Theories, cont. - motivated offender presence: unemployed - motivated offender presence: unemployed teens teens 5. Caring for the victim (government response) : Task Force on Victim’s of Crime (Reagan) : Omnibus Victim / Witness Protection Act : Comprehensive Crime Control Act and Victims of Crime Act Victims of Crime Act a. Victim Service Programs - 2,000 victim/witness assistance programs - 2,000 victim/witness assistance programs

43 Caring, cont. (1) Victim compensation (1) Victim compensation - receive from state for crime losses - most states: lack of funding - medical / wages / counseling / assistance (2) Court services (2) Court services - how to be a witness / bail / threats - provide transportation / escort to court (3) Crisis intervention (3) Crisis intervention - refer to area agencies (food / shelter) - refer to area agencies (food / shelter)

44 Caring, cont. (4) Victim-Offender Reconciliation (4) Victim-Offender Reconciliation - mediators: facilitate face-to-face talks - mediators: facilitate face-to-face talks - direct encounter: victim and offender - direct encounter: victim and offender b. Victim’s Rights - every state has victim’s “Bill of Rights” - every state has victim’s “Bill of Rights” - national constitutional amendment sought - national constitutional amendment sought c. Victim Advocacy - lobby for victims - lobby for victims - police / courts / media / politicians / etc - police / courts / media / politicians / etc

45 Caring, cont. d. Self-Protection - concern for community safety - concern for community safety (1) Target hardening (1) Target hardening - home / business crime proof - home / business crime proof - locks / alarms / lights / other devices - locks / alarms / lights / other devices (2) Fighting back (2) Fighting back - guns for defensive purposes - guns for defensive purposes - block watches / neighborhood patrols - block watches / neighborhood patrols


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