Presentation on theme: "Jim Crow Laws They were state and local laws enacted primarily but not exclusively in the Southern and border states of the United States, between 1876."— Presentation transcript:
Jim Crow Laws They were state and local laws enacted primarily but not exclusively in the Southern and border states of the United States, between 1876 and 1965.18761965 They mandated segregation in all public facilities, with a "separate but equal" status for black Americans and members of other non-white racial groups.
Examples of Jim Crow laws segregation of public schools, public places public transportation, segregation of restrooms and restaurants for whites and blacks.
During the Reconstruction period of 1865– 1877 in the defeated South (the Confederacy), federal law protected the civil rights of "freedmen" —or the liberated African slaves.Reconstructionfreedmen In the 1870s, white Democrats gradually returned to power in southern states, sometimes as a result of elections in which these groups intimidated opponents, attacking blacks or preventing them from voting.
Origins Of Jim Crow Intimidation came through extreme violence Blacks were still elected to local offices in the 1880s, but the white Democrats were passing laws to make voter registration and elections more restrictive, with the result that participation by most blacks and many poor whites began to decrease.
Black Codes most commonly associated with the Southern states after the American Civil War and the Reconstruction.Southern statesAmerican Civil War Reconstruction They were used to regulate the freedoms of former slaves. In terms of laws that discriminated against African Americans, Black Codes developed over the span of half a century or more. These Laws attempted to reestablish slavery
Voting Restrictions Starting with Mississippi in 1890, through 1910 the former Confederate states passed new constitutions or amendments that effectively disfranchised most blacks and tens of thousands of poor whites through a combination of poll taxes, literacy and comprehension tests, and residency and record-keeping requirements. Grandfather clauses temporarily permitted some illiterate whites to vote.
Progressive Era The Progressive Era in the United States was a period of reform which lasted from the 1890s to the 1920s.United States The Progressives sought change in regard to workers' rights and protection of the ordinary citizen in general.Progressives Progressives pushed for social justice, gender equality and public safety, but there were contradictions within the movement, especially regarding race
Bringing To An End It was not until 1954 in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka that the court held that separate facilities were inherently unequal in the area of public schools, effectively overturning Plessy v. Ferguson, and outlawing Jim Crow in other areas of society as well.
Bringing To An End Jim Crow laws were overruled by the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965.Civil Rights Act of 1964Voting Rights Act of 1965
Civil Rights Act of 1964 outlawed racial segregation in schools, public places, and employment. Conceived to help African Americansracial segregationAfrican Americans It prohibited discrimination in public facilities, in government, and in employment, invalidating the Jim Crow laws in the southern U.S. It became illegal to compel segregation of the races in schools, housing, or hiring.Jim Crow laws
End of segregation Building a coalition of northern Democrats and Republicans, President Lyndon B. Johnson passed the Civil Rights Act of 1964 which immediately annulled Jim Crow laws. Lyndon B. JohnsonCivil Rights Act of 1964 The Voting Rights Act of 1965 ended legally sanctioned barriers to voting for all federal, state and local elections.Voting Rights Act