Presentation on theme: "The Beginnings of Our Current Government and Political Parties."— Presentation transcript:
The Beginnings of Our Current Government and Political Parties
1. Ratification of the Constitution The Philadelphia Convention approved the final draft of Constitution on Sept. 17, 1787 The Constitution was sent to individual state governments for their approval and ratification. Five states approved the Constitution without many problems. Then Massachusetts voted on the Constitution.
1. Ratification of the Constitution There was a large number of Antifederalists in Massachusetts including Samuel Adams and John Hancock. These Antifederalists were against any sort of strong central government because of their experience with the British government. Both the Federalists and the Antifederalists tried to convince people to join their viewpoint. Both sides produced newspapers. The main objection of the Antifederalists was the lack of any sort of Bill of Rights with the original Constitution.
1. Ratification of the Constitution The Antifederalists in Massachusetts did not want to ratify the Constitution because of the lack of a Bill of Rights. Compromise was again needed. The compromise came when the Antifederalists agreed to vote FOR the Constitution IF the Federalists agreed to create a Bill of Rights during the First Session of Congress. The Federalists in Massachusetts agree to this compromise. The Compromise becomes known as the Massachusetts Compromise.
1. Ratification of the Constitution Several states followed the lead of Massachusetts by ratifying the Constitution if and ONLY if the First Congress adopt a Bill of Rights as one of the first things it does. In June 1788, New Hampshire becomes the ninth state to agree to or ratify the Constitution. Since 9 of the 13 states ratified the Constitution, it goes into effect. However, 4 states had not yet ratified the Constitution, and 2 of the 4 states were large states: Virginia and New York.
1. Ratification of the Constitution By June 1788, both Virginia and New York had agreed to the Constitution IF a Bill of Rights were created during the First Congress. Only North Carolina and Rhode Island held out and did not agree to the Constitution until after the new government had begun to function and a Bill of Rights was created.
2. Election of George Washington The 1st thing to do was to elect a President. There was really only one choice--but he did not even want the job. The votes were cast--69 electors were chosen for the Electoral College Of the 69 possible electoral votes, George Washington received 69 votes--an unanimous result. George Washington became the first President of the United States of America by taking the oath of office, the same one that is used today, on April 30, 1789 in New York City. George Washington
3. Setting up the Executive Branch Washington selects Thomas Jefferson as his first Secretary of State. The Secretary of State deals with how the U.S. interacts with other countries Jefferson strongly opposes Great Britain—the enemy from the American Revolution. Jefferson is more friendly towards France—they helped the Americans during the American Revolution. Washington’s election happened during the time of the French Revolution. Jefferson was in France at the time of the Revolution and was interested in seeing France move away from a monarchy and towards a democracy. Jefferson PRO-France and ANTI- British feelings meant that he favored the Anti-Federalist position and was a defender of STRONG States Rights. Thomas Jefferson
3. Setting up the Executive Branch Washington selects Alexander Hamilton to be Secretary of the Treasury who deals with nation’s currency and other money issues. Hamilton believed in a loose interpretation of the Constitution. The Constitution says nothing about the national government running a national bank, but because the government needs to regulate commerce or trade and a stable currency is needed for trade, then Hamilton believes the national government needs to control and run a national bank. Hamilton also developed a financial plan based on a strong national government paying the debts of the national and state governments. This plan angered the Southern states. The Southern states wanted strong state governments. Because of Hamilton’s beliefs, he is considered to be a Federalist. Alexander Hamilton
3. Setting up the Executive Branch Washington selects Henry Knox as the Secretary of War in charge of the military. Washington also selects Edmund Randolph as the first Attorney General. The Attorney General is the nation’s top lawyer and main prosecuting attorney. Henry Knox, on the left Edmund Randolph, on the right
The Constitution established the Supreme Court as the highest court in the United States. Congress was to set up Supreme Court and the rest of the Judicial Branch. Congress passed the Judiciary Act of 1789. The Judiciary Act included a Supreme Court of 6 Justices: One Chief Justice and 5 Associate Justices. Also, a federal court system of 3 circuit courts and 13 district courts was created. Today, the Supreme Court includes 9 Justices: One Chief Justice and 8 Associate Justices. 4. Setting up the Judicial Branch
Washington names John Jay as the first Chief Justice.
5. Setting up the Legislative Branch The First Congress began to met in March 1789 in New York City. As the Constitution dictated, both Houses chose leaders. Vice President John Adams would serve as leader of the Senate. Frederick Muhlenberg from Pennsylvania led the House of Representatives.
5. Setting up the Legislative Branch The first task of the First Congress was the Bill of Rights which several states wanted as a condition for ratifying the Constitution. James Madison formally proposed 12 amendments—10 of which would become the Bill of Rights. The Bill of Rights was based on several documents including Virginia’s Declaration of Rights written by George Mason.
5. Setting up the Legislative Branch George Mason James Madison
6. Accomplishments made during Washington’s Presidency Once the Bill of Rights was created and sent to the States for Ratification, Congress turned its attention to the Judicary branch of government and created the Judicary Act of 1789. Also, Federalists and Antifederalists were once again fighting. This time their fight was about Alexander Hamilton’s financial plan for the United States. Hamilton wanted a strong central government to pay the debts of the nation and the states. He also wanted a national bank.
6. Accomplishments made during Washington’s Presidency Hamilton’s national bank would have four duties: 1. Handle the federal government’s money. 2. Help collect taxes. 3. Issue paper money and currency. 4. Give out loans to help the growth of businesses.
6. Accomplishments made during Washington’s Presidency Antifederalists were outraged because the Constitution said nothing about the national government running a bank. Once again, compromise was needed. James Madison, Thomas Jefferson, and Alexander Hamilton led the charge for this new compromise. Madison and Jefferson agreed to allow the national government to have the power to tax and pay for state debts. Hamilton agreed to allow the new capital of the country to be in a district created in the South. The compromise was made, and it was decided that the capital would eventually move to the District of Columbia--just north of Virginia.
6. Accomplishments made during Washington’s Presidency To pay the debts, taxes needed to be raised. Hamilton wanted excise taxes which are taxes on products made and used within the states. Hamilton also wanted import tariffs which are taxes on goods created outside the United States and are brought into the country for sale and use. Congress adopts these taxes in 1791 and 1792.
6. Accomplishments made during Washington’s Presidency Washington also had foreign affair problems: 1. The British and Native Americans were causing trouble on the frontier. Washington sent General “Mad” Anthony Wayne to defeat the Native Americans at the Battle of Fallen Timbers. 2. The Spanish were causing problems at New Orleans by NOT allowing U.S. ships to pass. This was bad for trade and the U.S. economy. 3. The French were revolting against the French king and setting up a “democracy” in France. Out of fear, Great Britain went to war with the new revolutionary government in France. If the U.S. helped France as stated in the Treaty of Alliance of 1778, then the U.S. would anger the British and start a new war with them.
6. Accomplishments made during Washington’s Presidency Members of Washington’s cabinet, or formal advisors to the President, had different opinions about what to do. Hamilton, who was pro-British because trade with the British brought in lots of taxes, wanted the U.S. to stay neutral. This was the FEDERALIST position. Jefferson, who strongly believed in democracy rather than monarchy, believed we should live up to the Treaty we signed with France in 1778 and help them. This was the DEMOCRATIC- REPUBLICAN position.
6. Accomplishments made during Washington’s Presidency Washington solves his foreign affair problems in 3 ways: 1. Washington issues the Proclamation of Neutrality in 1793. The. U.S. would not help France. Washington did recognize the new government of France as the New French Republic, but Washington said that since the Treaty was made with the old king and old government, the treaty was no longer in effect. 2. Washington sends Chief Justice John Jay to Great Britain to create and sign the Jay Treaty in 1794. This treaty solves some of the problems the U.S. had with Great Britain stirring up Indians on the frontier. 3. Washington sends Thomas Pinckney to create the Pinckney Treaty with Spain. This treaty reopens the Spanish port of New Orleans for American trade.
7. End of Washington’s Presidency As George Washington left office, he urged the country towards neutrality and unity. Unfortunately, the country does not heed his advice. Two Political Parties begin to organize: The Federalists and the Democratic- Republicans.
8.The Federalists The Federalists are led by a couple different people. John Adams, Washington’s natural successor, becomes head of the Federalists despite the fact that he is not a strong Federalist. Alexander Hamilton, an extreme Federalist, begins to cause problems for Adams by demanding stronger Federalist ideas.
8. The Federalists The Federalists believe in several things: 1. Strong central federal government 2. Loose interpretation of the Constitution 3. Foreign Affair preferences: Pro-British and Anti-French 4. Support a national bank 5. Government should be ruled by the wealthy and educated class of people 6. Emphasis should be placed on manufactured goods and products 7. Want protective tariffs 8. Newspaper: Gazette of the United States
9. The Democratic-Republicans The Democratic-Republicans believe in these: 1. Strong state governments 2. Strict interpretation of the Constitution 3. Foreign Affair preferences: Pro-French and Anti-British 4. Support state banks rather than one national 5. Government should be ruled by ALL people 6. Emphasis should be placed on agricultural goods and products 7. Want FREE trade and NO tariffs 8. Newspaper: National Gazette
10. John Adams becomes President Despite the potential problems caused by Alexander Hamilton, “Federalist” John Adams narrowly defeats the Democratic-Republican Thomas Jefferson in the 1796 presidential election. Adams wins 71 electoral votes; Jefferson gets 69 electoral votes Adams became President and Jefferson became Vice President dspite the fact that the two men were from different political parties.
11. Events of John Adams’ Presidency Beginning in 1798, the Federalist- controlled Congress passed a series of 4 laws which angered the Democratic- Republicans and the general public as a whole. Together, these laws are known as the Alien and Sedition Acts.
11. Events of John Adams’ Presidency The 4 Alien and Sedition Act laws include: 1. The Naturalization Act - this law increased the amount of time required to be a United States citizen from 5 to 14 years. 2. The Alien Act - this law said that the President could deport or imprison any foreigner who was considered dangerous. 3. The Alien Enemies Act - this law said that the President could deport or imprison any foreigner for ANY reason who was from a country that is at war with the U.S. 4. The Sedition Act - this law made it illegal to speak or write critically about the U.S. government.
11. Events of John Adams’ Presidency The Alien and Sedition Acts greatly anger the Democratic-Republicans who see the laws as an attack on rights and freedoms guaranteed by the Bill of Rights. About 25 newspapers controlled by the Democratic-Republicans are shut down and the editors arrested under the Sedition Act. Ten of these editors are convicted of treason.
11. Events of John Adams’ Presidency To combat these 4 laws, Thomas Jefferson and James Madison create what becomes known as the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions of 1798. The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions say that any state has the right to nullify, or reject, any law passed by the Federal government. In other words, Jefferson and Madison argue that the state governments still hold more power than the national government. This idea is known as the “States Rights Theory” as opposed to the Federalist idea of a strong central government.
11. Events of John Adams’ Presidency Adams also has problems with foreign affairs. France is upset about the Jay Treaty. To the French, the treaty greatly favors U.S. trade with Great Britain and not France. France begins to interfere with American shipping, trade, and politics. Adams sends John Marshall, Charles C. Pinckney, and Elbridge Gerry to France to hopefully create a peace treaty.
11. Events of John Adams’ Presidency Marshall, above Gerry, right Pinkney, below French Prime Minister Charles Maurice de Talleyrand The XYZ Affair
11. Events of John Adams’ Presidency Instead of creating a true peace treaty, French Prime Minister Charles Maurice de Talleyrand sends three agents with code names X, Y, and Z to try to bribe the Americans. The Americans are outraged by this attempt and the incident becomes known as the XYZ Affair. Many Americans, especially the pro-British Federalists, want to go to war with France because of the XYZ Affair.
11. Events of John Adams’ Presidency Adams still wants peace and decides to send more ambassadors to French in a new effort to gain a true peace treaty. The new ambassadors are successful and the “Convention of 1800” prevents a possible war with France. However, Adams peaceful actions angered his fellow Federalists. Led by Alexander Hamilton, many Federalists refuse to support Adams in the election of 1800.