Presentation on theme: "So.. Let look at our really Big question What are the philosophical and historical foundation of the American Governmental system? What have we learned."— Presentation transcript:
So.. Let look at our really Big question What are the philosophical and historical foundation of the American Governmental system? What have we learned so far that can help answer the question? Locke gave us the natural right philosophy Jefferson built on Locke when writing the declaration of independence We in the US established our country and entered into a social contract (Mayflower Compact) Classical societies taught us about civic virtue & the common good Now lets look at the role of our British past and colonial experience … Madison taught us that common good and natural rights can work together
Lets examine how our British past influenced the founding fathers in developing our government. Upon arrival in America, the English colonist brought with them ideas about government They believed government should be: OrderedLimited&Representative Ordered Government Local governments to regulate the relationship among people and best meet the needs of society. How is the concept of ordered government found in our system? When classifying our government we call it a federal government
What are the roots of limited Government? People have certain rights which cannot be taken away… This idea first emerged in 12 15 with the signing of the Magna Carta English Barons force King John to sign the Magna Carta which limits the power of the monarchy by protecting.. LIFELIBERTYPROPERTY BY… Establishing: Trial by jury Due process of the law False imprisonment/ evidence required These right only apply to Lords & Barons
In 1688 another important development in limiting the power of government took place in England THE PETITION OF RIGHT King Charles need parliament support for new tax to pay more for wars. (parliament doesn’t have to approve but he needs their support) Parliament give the tax OK if… King Charles agrees to the following limits on power.. Cannot imprison political critics (of any class) without a trial. Cannot declare martial law during peace time. Cannot require people to shelter troops without homeowners consent No tax or government loan with common consent of parliament
In 1688 England found themselves without a King or Queen. Parliament offered the throne to William & Mary Under the following conditions which further limited the power of the monarchy. No standing army during peacetime without Parliament consent. Require free parliamentary elections To levy a tax with parliament consent is illegal & the king must follow the laws. For the king to suspend a law without parliament consent is illegal. Guaranteed : Speedy trial Freedom from excessive bail Freedom from cruel and unusual punishment
The third idea about government the colonist brought with them from their British past was GOVERNMENT SHOULD REPRESENT THE PEOPLE I believe Mr. Lincoln said it best “Government of the people, by the people, for the people” How can we find this in our government today.
The influence of the Colonial period on our current governmental system What is the purpose of a colony?Make $$$ British parliament took little interest in the American colonies as long as they made $. It took 2 months for info to reach America. The colonial government had the power to tax and approve spending in the colonies Colonial legislatures often refused to approve the salary of colonial governors if they didn’t do as the legislature wanted, So the King or Parliament appointed colonial governors (central government) Citizens of the colonies elected local law making legislatures Creating a federal governmental system
So basically the federal system in the colonies looked like this.. London controlled Defense, trade & foreign affairs. Local governments controlled most everything else All was good until the French & Indian War British provide defense of the colonies Now they want the colonies to pay for the war And furthermore they prohibit colonist to go in the newly won territory. Another defense issue The proclamation of 1763 Protection from the Indians
So British Parliament Imposed taxes on the American colonist You know the ones.. The Stamp Act The Townshend Acts Sugar Act This was the first time parliament (in London) passed laws affecting American colonist The colonist cried “TAXATION WITHOUT REPRESENTATION” These taxes are being passed without the consent of the American colonist.. Mr. Jefferson said this government has become destructive to the very thing it was designed to protect The colonist got a little crazy and destroyed property of the government So the king put the Boston area under military rule WE NEED A NEW GOVERNMENT!
The first try at a new government is: Confederate Democracy No executive branch (I don’t know what to call it) It didn’t last