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John Adams Second President of the United States.

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1 John Adams Second President of the United States

2 International Crisis 1798 Federalists bel’d the U.S. was facing the most dangerous crisis in its short history Undeclared naval war with France France perceived –Jay’s Treaty favored Britain –Allowed the British to seize French goods from American ships In exchange for financial compensation France retaliated by capturing hundreds of ships flying the U.S. flag.

3 Adams’ Reaction Attempted to negotiate with France French gov’t –Refused to receive the American envoy –Suspended commercial relations. Asked Congress to authorize the arming American merchant vessels

4 XYZ Affair Against the advice of Washington and Hamilton Adams sent three emissaries to France The French foreign minister,Talleyrand, refused to negotiate with the diplomats Talleyrand sent three agents –Demanded a bribe before negotiating with the American commission. –The Americans refused the bribe. The diplomatic mission failed miserably

5 The Press News of the XYZ Affair triggered demands for war with France. Americans cried, “Millions for defense, but not one cent for tribute” Quasi-War ensued for two years. Rumors of alien plots wreak havoc upon the young, fragile nation Federalists –Acted to preclude domestic subversion –Silence opposition to the government that they controlled

6 Federalists vs Republicans Viewed rivals as dangerous radicals that supported a social revolution (French Revolution) Considered the French Revolution anarchy (disorder) Feared aliens –Extremist ideas –Corrupt the minds of Americans Hysteria gripped members of this party –Feared immigrant participation in politics –Sought to tighten restrictions on foreigners Bel’d the Feds –D efenders of the wealthy, commercial elite, –Eager to reinstitute monarchy Supported –French Revolution –Attack on aristocratic privileges Large immigrant support


8 Alien and Sedition Acts Four laws –to control threats to the national security –to punish the opposition party for seditious libel Acts gave the president the power to imprison or deport foreigners believed to pose a threat to the U.S. Made it a crime to criticize the government with false, scandalous, or malicious statements.

9 Four Laws Naturalization Act –increased the residency requirement for American citizenship from 5 to 14 years –required aliens to declare their intent to acquire citizenship 5 years before it could be granted – and made people from enemy nations ineligible for naturalization Alien Enemies Act –allowed for the deportation of aliens from nations at war with the U.S. Alien Friends Act –gave the president the power to jail or deport any alien he deemed dangerous to the peace and safety of the United States Sedition Act –limited freedom of speech and the right to peaceably assemble –illegal to print, utter, or publish any false, scandalous, and malicious writing against the gov’t –prohibited assembly with intent to oppose any measure of the government

10 Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions Jefferson and Madison Protested –With resolutions –Gov’t was a compact between the states –Citizens, through their state legislatures, possessed the right to judge the constitutionality of federal legislation Doctrines of interposition and nullification –States could void federal laws –States could place themselves between federal gov’t and its citizens


12 Convention of 1800 Adams makes agreement with France Stop all naval attacks Federalists disapprove Adams loses election of 1800

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