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Claire McCartney MIEI MIOSH Fire and Safety Consulting & Training Fire Risk Assessment: The Evacuation Perspective Principles and Practical Experiences.

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Presentation on theme: "Claire McCartney MIEI MIOSH Fire and Safety Consulting & Training Fire Risk Assessment: The Evacuation Perspective Principles and Practical Experiences."— Presentation transcript:

1 Claire McCartney MIEI MIOSH Fire and Safety Consulting & Training Fire Risk Assessment: The Evacuation Perspective Principles and Practical Experiences Claire McCartney BA BAI MBS P.G.Dip MIEI CMIOSH

2 Claire McCartney MIEI MIOSH Fire and Safety Consulting & Training The Evacuation Perspective - Legislation  Section 19 of the Fire Services Acts 1981 & 2003 states: “potentially dangerous building means any building which would, in the event of a fire…, constitute a serious danger to life…”  Adequate means of egress from the building  Notices as to the procedure which should be followed in the event of fire  Appliances or fittings for enabling the occupants to escape on the occurrence of fire

3 Claire McCartney MIEI MIOSH Fire and Safety Consulting & Training  Section 8 of the Safety, Health and Welfare at Work Act 2005 states: “Every employer shall ensure, so far as is reasonably practicable, the safety, health and welfare at work of his or her employees. ”  Design, provision and maintenance of safe means of egress from the place of work  Prepare and revise adequate plans, procedures and measures to be taken in case of an emergency The Evacuation Perspective - Legislation

4 Claire McCartney MIEI MIOSH Fire and Safety Consulting & Training  Section 19 of the Safety, Health and Welfare at Work Act 2005 states: “Every employer shall identify the hazards in the place of work under his or her control, assess the risks presented by those hazards and be in possession of a written assessment of the risks to the safety, health and welfare at work of his or her employees…and persons other than his or her employees. ” The Evacuation Perspective - Legislation

5 Claire McCartney MIEI MIOSH Fire and Safety Consulting & Training Fire Risk Assessment - Principles It is not acceptable to rely on the intervention of the Fire Service It is not acceptable to leave a disabled person in a refuge area NDA Promoting Safety Egress and Evacuation for People with Disabilities

6 Claire McCartney MIEI MIOSH Fire and Safety Consulting & Training Fire Risk Assessment - Principles Safe evacuation of all occupants Fire Risk Assessment Building Emergency Evacuation Plan BuildingOccupants and Personal Emergency Evacuation Plan

7 Claire McCartney MIEI MIOSH Fire and Safety Consulting & Training  What is the evacuation strategy for the building?  Total evacuation  Phased evacuation  Zoned evacuation  Fire Safety Certificate granted by local Fire Authority outlines the evacuation strategy  Building is designed based on the evacuation strategy, including building structure (passive) and fire safety systems (active) Fire Risk Assessment – Building

8 Claire McCartney MIEI MIOSH Fire and Safety Consulting & Training  Fire alarm – audibility of sounders, number, location & height of bgus, visual/vibrating devices, paging system  Compartmentation – fire resistance and fire doors  Escape routes and final exits – complexity and familiarity of routes, travel distances, stairs, ramps, level thresholds, fire doors along routes  Refuge/rest areas and communication system  Evacuation lifts or normal lifts  Way-finding – directional signs, low level signs, handrails, directional sound, colour contrasts, thread indicators, number & location of emergency lights  Signage – height of signs, size of print, tactile info  Equipment and facilities – evacuation chairs Fire Risk Assessment – Building

9 Claire McCartney MIEI MIOSH Fire and Safety Consulting & Training To design a building that provides safe evacuation for all, we must base the evacuation time on the person who will take the longest time to escape. Evacuation time – from detection, through pre- movement time (including alarm activation, recognition and response time) and to the end of movement time when the evacuation is complete Design the Building Emergency Evacuation Plan to suit the greatest evacuation time Fire Risk Assessment – Occupants

10 Claire McCartney MIEI MIOSH Fire and Safety Consulting & Training Fire Risk Assessment – Occupants: Types of Disability  Mobility impairment – range or speed of movement  Sensory impairment – ability to gather information, e.g. sight and sound  Cognitive or mental health impairment – capacity to process information and react appropriately e.g. dyslexia or autism  Hidden disability – stress of situation triggers condition e.g. asthma or heart problem

11 Claire McCartney MIEI MIOSH Fire and Safety Consulting & Training Effect of Disability on Evacuation Time  Recognition time – get alarm signal, see developing threat, interpret information  Response time – raise alarm, fight fire, prepare for escape, decide on action  Movement time – horizontal and vertical travel  Automatic door closers and electromagnetic catches, ‘Do not use lifts’, way-finding, unfamiliar terrain, complex escape routes, queues form behind person, reduced corridor/stair width, slower in dense crowds, travel distance without resting, reaction to instructions

12 Claire McCartney MIEI MIOSH Fire and Safety Consulting & Training  Level of alertness – awake, asleep, cognitive state  Level of mobility – walk aided or unaided  Social affiliation – alone or with a group  Intellectual capacity – ability to understand instructions or procedures  Mental health status – tolerance to noise or panic situations  Role and responsibility – staff or public  Position – standing, seated or lying down  Commitment – to activity they are engaged in Fire Risk Assessment – Occupants

13 Claire McCartney MIEI MIOSH Fire and Safety Consulting & Training Building Emergency Evacuation Plan  Prepare a PEEP for all known disabled persons and standardised PEEPs for potential visitors  Facilitate independent escape if possible – provide suitable aids and adaptations  Do not overplay safety issues – dignity  What can person do in exceptional circumstances not just everyday situations  Assign “buddies” if necessary and train accordingly  Do evacuation drills and ‘mock-ups’  Identify time required for each person’s escape

14 Claire McCartney MIEI MIOSH Fire and Safety Consulting & Training  Flashing beacons, vibrating devices, pagers  Use of lift  Walk down stairs slowly on their own  Move down stairs on bottom  Walk/move down stairs with assistance  Use evacuation chair  Carry down – own chair or other chair  Additional orientation information, tactile map, colour contrasting, large print  Assistance with opening doors PEEP Escape Options

15 Claire McCartney MIEI MIOSH Fire and Safety Consulting & Training Personal Emergency Evacuation Plan - Consultation  Consult with those directly affected:  Employees  Regular visitors  Consult with relevant disability organisations to anticipate needs of other visitors and members of the public  Consult with other members of staff assigned as ‘buddies’ in the evacuation procedures  Consult with local Fire Service  Consult with the landlord and other tenants

16 Claire McCartney MIEI MIOSH Fire and Safety Consulting & Training References  NDA – Promoting Safe Egress and Evacuation for People with Disabilities  HM Government – Fire Safety Risk Assessment: Means of Escape for Disabled People  BS5588-8:1999 Fire precautions in the design, construction and use of buildings – Code of practice for means of escape for disabled people

17 Claire McCartney MIEI MIOSH Fire and Safety Consulting & Training THANK YOU Any Questions?


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