12Tang DynastyRuled for nearly 300 years ( )Emperor Tang Taizong
13Expansion of EmpireConquered northern and western lands that China lost during the Han dynasty.Extended influence over Korea
14Empress Wu Zhao (Jow)Empress Wu was married to Tang Taizong at the age of 13.After Taizong’s death, she became a favored wife of his son.Wu Zhao soon rose above rival wives and became the emperor’s chief wife.
15Emperor Taizong became ill, so Empress Wu ruled the throne. She was 26 years old when he died.After his death, Wu ruled the throne through their sons.She became frustrated by their inability to be effective leaders and took the throne at age 65.She lost power at age 80.
17Tang China Prospers Tang Taizong lowered taxes Took land away from the wealthy and gave it to the poor.He promoted foreign tradeMade improvements in agriculture
18Scholar OfficialsCivil service officials had to take a test in order to become part of an elite group of scholar-officials.Tang rulers opened schools around the country to train young scholars in Confucianism, poetry, and other subjects.
19Exams were open to all commoners, but only the wealthy could afford to go to school to get the education required to pass the exam.Men with political connections could obtain high positions without taking the exams.As a result, talent and education became more important than noble birth.
23Tang dynasty collapses By the mid-700s, The Tang Dynasty was weakening.To pay for military expansion, Tang rulers imposed crushing taxes.This brought hardship to the peoplePeasants fled their villages and roved the countryside in bandit gangs.
24In 907, Chinese rebels sacked and burned the Tang capital and murdered the last Tang emperor, Emperor Ai.He died from poisoning at age 17.
28Song DynastyIn 960, Song Taizu, the first Song emperor, reunited China.The Song dynasty lasted 3 centuries.Song tried to maintain peace with northern and western tribes, but was eventually forced southward.
30The created a new capital near the Yangtze river, Hangzhou. The south eventually became the economic heartland of China.
31China grew in population, trade, wealth, new ideas, and artistic achievements. By the Song era, China had at least 10 cities with a population of 1 million each.China became the most populous and most advanced.
32Science and Technology Moveable typeGunpowderPorcelainMechanical clockPaper moneyMagnetic compass for sailing
33AgricultureIn the year 1000, China imported a new ‘fast-ripening’ rice from Vietnam.This new rice allowed farmers to have two crops of rice per year instead of one.The allowed China’s farmers to produce more food for the growing population.
38China lost control over the Silk Road trading Routes during the decline of the Tang dynasty. They concentrated on ocean trade.Chinese advances in sailing technology and the compass made China the greatest sea power in the world.
39Through trade and travel, cultural diffusion took place. Chinese culture rapidly spread throughout Asia.One major influence was Buddhism. Buddhism spread from China to Japan, Korea, and Vietnam.
41Exchange of goods Tea first arrived in China from Southeast Asia. The Chinese became avid tea drinkers.New ideas in mathematics and astronomy developed from contact with India.Islam and Christianity also spread to China.
42Artistic creativity Celebrated poets Li Bo – celebrated life’s pleasuresDu Fu – praised orderliness and Confucian virtues.Also wrote about war and hardship of soldiersHe was once captured by rebels
44Paintings Emphasized Daoist love of nature Artists emphasized the beauty of the natural landscapes, mountains, and rippling brooksObjects such as a single branch or flowerDid not use brightly colored paintsBlank ink was their favorite.“Black is ten colors.”
48Social Changes in China People moved to the cities in increasing numbers.Growing cities offered many opportunities for managers, professionals, and skilled workers.The most important avenue for social advancement was the civil service system.
49Gentry A new larger upper class emerged of scholar-officials. A class of powerful, well-to-do people is called the ‘gentry’.The gentry attained their status through education and civil service positions, rather than through land ownership, although many scholar officials did own land.
50The middle class included – merchants, shop keepers, skilled artisans, minor officials, and servants.The lower class include – laborers, servants, soldiers, and peasants.
51Interesting NoteMany scholar officials grew their fingernails long to demonstrate they did no manual labor.
52World RecordThis woman from Utah, currently has the longest nails in the world, over 24 feet.She has not cut her nails since 1979.Although the reasons why she grew them has nothing to do with our lesson.
53Women Were always subservient to men throughout Chinese society. Status further declined during the Tang and Song dynasties.Women’s work was deemed less important to the family.Peasant women usually labored in the fields to help their families.
55Bound FeetIt became customary to bind the feet of upper class girls when they were very young.Their feet were bound tightly with cloth, which broke their arch and curled all but the big toe under.This produced a “lily-foot” that became admired.
57Foot Binding – The ‘Lotus’ foot Women with bound feet were crippled for life.To others in society, such a woman reflected wealth and prestige of her husband who could afford such a beautiful and impractical wife.https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VMkYbtI3xpAFoot binding lasted until the 20th century
58The technological advances, and social and economic changes permanently shaped Chinese civilization.
59____ 1. Which of the following reflects the chronological order of Chinese dynasties? a. Han, Sui, Song, Tangb. Han, Sui, Tang, Songc. Sui, Tang, Han, Songd. Sui, Song, Han, Tang____ 2. What contributed greatly to the fall of the Tang Dynasty?the invention of gunpowderthe imposition of heavy taxesthe doubling of the Chinese populationthe restoration of the civil service system____ 3. Tang Taizong and Wu Zhao were emperors of theSui DynastyHan DynastySong DynastyTang Dynasty____ 4. The invention of moveable type sped up the existing printing process mainly because the individual typewas smallerwas easier to carvecould be reused to print something elsecould be used to print more than one copy of the same page._____ 5. All of the following were inventions of the Tang and Song dynasties EXCEPT:porcelainpaper moneythe microscopethe magnetic compass______ 6. In the Tang and Song dynasties, the new gentry gained social status throughnoble birthemploymentland ownershiptrade and commerce