A Dynasty is a line of rulers that come from the same family An aristocrat is a noble, or upper class person, whose wealth comes from their land Key Terms….
China’s history is usually divided into time periods based on the rule of different dynasties. A ‘dynasty’ is a ruling family that passes the power to rule down through the generations. These rulers were thought to be ‘divine’, or actual gods, and thus were obeyed without question.
After the collapse of the Later Han Dynasty in 220, without a strong central government, warlords begin to rise and fight each other for land, plunging China into a state of anarchy, establishing their boundaries from their conquered lands. China split into three kingdoms- Wei, Shu, and Wu. It was militarily unstable configuration and Inner China was reunited in AD 265 by the Western Jin Dynasty, the successors of the Wei. Three Kingdoms 220 A.D A.D.
“The empire, long divided, must unite; long united, must divide. Thus it has ever been.” ~ 羅貫中 Luo, Guanzhong Romance of the Three Kingdoms Warlord Sun Jian found the Imperial Seal and kept it secretly for himself, further weakening royal authority. Warlord Cao Cao and Liu Bei were also starting to build up power. Liu Bei, along with his sworn brothers Guan Yu and Zhang Fei, pledge to do their best for the country. Liu Bei later recruits the genius strategist Zhu Ge Liang and builds up his forces against Cao Cao.
Jin Dynasty 265 A.D.– 420 A.D. The Jìn Dynasty, was founded by the Wanyan ( 完顏 Wányán) clan of the Jurchens, the ancestors of the Manchus who established the Qing Dynasty some 500 years later.
Sixteen Kingdoms (Wu Hu Period) 304 A.D A.D. This was one of the most devastating periods in Chinese history. Following a long period of Chinese dominance since the Qin Dynasty. five northern tribes ( Wu Hu ) had been established in North China ( 匈奴 Xiongnu/Hun, 鲜卑 Xianbe, 羯 Jie, 羌 Qiang, 氐 Di). The Wu Hu uprising took over much of the Chinese heartland. It did not end until Jin reclaimed much of central China while Northern Wei took over the areas north of the Yellow River.
Southern and Northern Dynasties 420 A.D. – 589 A.D. The Southern and Northern Dynasties was an age of civil war and political disunity. However it was also a time of flourishing in the arts and culture, advancement in technology, and the spread of Buddhism and native Daoism.
The Period of Disunion lasted more than 350 years, ending when a northern ruler named Wendi reunified China, founding the Sui dynasty. The Han dynasty ruled China from 206 BC to AD 220—more than 400 years. After the dynasty collapsed, military leaders split China into rival kingdoms. These events began a period of disorder and warfare that historians call the Period of Disunion. Nomads invaded northern China, formed own kingdoms Many northern Chinese fled south to region of Yangzi River A number of southern dynasties rose, fell The Period of Disunion Sui and Tang Dynasties Despite these events, Chinese civilization thrived, developed Nomadic invaders in north adopted aspects of Chinese civilization Northern Chinese immigrants’ culture blended with local cultures in south; arts, philosophy flowered Civilization Thrived
Sui Dynasty 581 A.D. – 618 A.D. The Sui Dynasty held its capital at Luoyang. It was marked by the reunification of Southern and Northern China. The Equal- Field system was initiated to reduce the rich-poor social gap. The system worked on the basis that all land was owned by the government, which would then assign it to individual families.
Greatest accomplishment of Sui dynasty, completed during reign of Yangdi, Wendi’s son 1,000 mile waterway linked northern, southern China Yangdi forced millions of peasants to work on canal; led to discontent, rebellion 618, Yangdi assassinated, Sui dynasty ended Grand Canal Wendi worked to build centralized government Restored order, created new legal code, reformed bureaucracy Created policies to provide adult males with land, ensure availability of grain Centralized Government The Sui Dynasty
Sui Dynasty, C.E. “Land Equalization” System land redistribution. Unified coinage. Grand Canal constructed. Established an army of professional soldiers. People were overworked and overtaxed!
The Grand Canal
Canals The world’s first transport contour canal was constructed in China in the 3 rd century BCE on the orders of Shi Huangdi. “The Magic Canal” (Lingqu) Linked the Xiang and Li Rivers. The “Grand Canal,” begun in 330 BCE, was completed during the Yuan dynasty (1293). Both canals are still in use in China.
The Grand Canal Today
Period of Brilliance Tang dynasty ruled 618 to 907; Chinese influence spread China experienced period of brilliance, prosperity, cultural achievement Government, other institutions served as models across East Asia Civil Service To obtain talented officials, Tang expanded civil service examination system People had to pass written exams to work for government Created flexible law code; model for law codes in Korea, Japan Built on Sui Foundations Established capital at Chang’an, Sui capital Second capital located at Luoyang Government control remained centralized, based on bureaucracy of officials The Tang Dynasty
Expansion Much of expansion occurred during reign of Taizong, 626 to 649 Taizong relied on talented ministers to help govern In addition to military conquests, Taizong had schools built to prepare students for civil service exams After his death, one of his sons became emperor Foreign Affairs Tang expanded China, Chinese influence Regained western lands in Central Asia, gained influence over Korea Contact with Japan increased; Japanese scholars came to China to study Expansion, increased contact with others grew foreign trade
Wu Zhao New emperor was weak, sickly Emperor’s wife, Wu Zhao gained power Following death of husband – Wu Zhao ruled through her sons – Eventually became emperor herself—the only woman to do so in Chinese history Wu Zhao overthrown, 705 – Dynasty reached height under Xuanzong – During reign, 712 to 756, empire prospered
At the end of Sui Dynasty, the whole country fell into chaos due to the tyranny of Emperor. Rebellions roused by peasants were everywhere. One of the generals, Li Shih-min, took over ruling the empire, and established Tang Dynasty. Historians regard the Tang Dynasty as a high point in Chinese civilization. The Tang period was the golden age of literature and art. Tang rule perfected a government system supported by a large class of Confucian literati selected through civil service examinations. Tang Dynasty 618 A.D A.D.
The Tang dynasty was established by one of Yangdi’s generals. The Tang dynasty ruled for about 300 years, from A.D. 618 to A.D The Tang dynasty brought about many reforms to improve government.
Tang Dynasty, C.E. Imperial examination system perfected. Liberal attitude towards all religions. Spread of Buddhism in China Golden Age of foreign relations with other countries. Japan, Korea, Persia
Tang Government Organization
The Tang Dynasty ( ) is the second great dynasty (of Chinese history that was able to unify a vast territory, to spread its culture and to absorb the cultures of surrounding states and peoples. Tang set it’s capital in Chang'an 長安 (modern Xian 西安 ). Trade stretched to the South East Asian archipelago, and the religion of Buddhism spread to Korea and Japan.
Reforms are changes that bring improvements. One of the most powerful Tang emperors was Taizong. He reinstated the civil service examination. Empress Wu was a ruler in the Tang dynasty who strengthened China’s military. The Tang dynasty expanded China’s empire and regained much of its power in Asia. By the mid-A.D. 700s, the Turks began to threaten the Tang dynasty’s hold in Asia.
Empress Wu Zetian, The only female Empress in China’s history who ruled alone. Searched for outstanding individuals to attract to her court. Construction of new irrigation systems. Buddhism was the favored state religion. Financed the building of many Buddhist temples. BUT… She appointed cruel and sadistic ministers to seek out her enemies.
They took control of central Asia and the Silk Road, damaging China’s economy. The Tang dynasty weakened and fell. A Chinese general established the Song dynasty, which ruled for about 300 years, from A.D. 960 to A.D
The Tang dynasty strengthened China’s economy by supporting farming and trade. The Chinese developed new technologies, such as steelmaking and printing. During the Tang and the Song dynasties, China enjoyed a golden age of art and literature.
A Growing Economy The political stability under the Tang dynasty helped the economy regain strength. As peace was restored, farmers were able to make advances and be more productive. They improved irrigation, introduced new ways of growing crops, and developed new kinds of rice.
Farmers began growing tea, which became a popular drink. New roads and waterways helped increase trade with other parts of Asia. The Silk Road became a busy trade route again. Silk fabric was one item traded by the Chinese, as well as tea, steel, paper, and porcelain, which is fine clay baked at high temperatures.
Changes in Agriculture Agriculture Crops were grown on terraced hillsides Chain pumps were used for irrigation Water buffaloes pulled improved plows Rice plants grown in seedbeds Rice growing took lots of work done by many people Rice was transpla nted to paddies Fast growing drought resistant rice grown
Why agriculture changed in China… 1.Farmers moved to the south, a good region for growing rice 2.New type of rice was introduced 3.An improved plow and harrow were developed 4.Farmers fertilized their crops
Growth of Trade & Commerce Commerce Goods were moved along canals on barges Junks were used for trade with foreign countries Peasants sold surplus crops, animals, & goods made at their homes Oxcarts & pack animals moved products along roads Small shops lined streets & bridges Indigo, spices, silver, ivory, & coral were imported People used paper money & traded in copper coins at deposit shops
Why commerce developed in China… 1.There was a vast system of rivers & canals 2.Improvements in navigation made long sea voyages easier 3.Wealthy landowners demanded more goods 4.Paper currency helped trade
Urbanization Vendors sold food from trays on their heads. Silk, silver, fans, & other items were for sale Many types of people lived in the cities Signs identified the many goods being sold There were theaters & outdoor entertainers Urban women had less status than rural women Restaurants & teahouses provided food & drink Chinese cities were the largest in the world & Cities were crowded & exciting
Reasons for urbanization in China… 1.People came to the city to trade as commerce increased 2.Large landowners moved to cities because they preferred the shops & social life there
Put in the correct order… 1.A new type of rice allows farmers to plant at least two crops of rice per year. 2.Rice production increases. 3.Landowners become wealthier 4.Landowners have money for luxury items. 5.Small traders bring more luxury items to local markets. 6.Large cities develop.
Tang Dynasty, C.E. New technologies: – Printing moveable print – Porcelain – Gunpowder – Mechanical clocks More cosmopolitan culture. Reestablished the safety of the Silk Road. Tea comes into China from Southeast Asia.
Foot-Binding in Tang China Broken toes by 3 years of age. Size 5 ½ shoe on the right
Foot-Binding in Tang China Mothers bound their daughters’ feet.
Foot-Binding in Tang China For upper-class girls, it became a new custom.
The Results of Foot-Binding
Tang Dynasty Created programs to help the poor Created gunpowder- Fireworks! Brought back the Civil service exam – Open to all men, but only the rich could afford the education – Must be knowledgeable in Confucianism – Only 1 in 5 passed
Aristocracy: The Tang Dynasty Who were scholar-officials? – Scholars that got government jobs through examinations What was the examination for scholar-officials primarily based on? – Based on the teachings of Confucius Why did aristocrats continue to hold most offices? – Only wealthy could afford tutors, books, & time to study needed to prepare for the exams Mertiocracy: The Song Dynasty According to emperors & scholars, knowledge of Confucius would produce what type of government official? – People who had studied Confucius would be rational, moral, & able to maintain order What new group of people were allowed to become government officials during the Song Period? – Lower classes Why did people want government jobs? – More respect & were excused from taxes & military service
From India Buddhism first came to China from India during Han times During Period of Disunion many Chinese turned to Buddhism Taught people could escape suffering, appealed to people in turmoil Tang Decline 750s, decline began, government weak, nomadic invasions, rebellions Military defeats lost Tang lands in Central Asia and the north 907, emperor killed, Tang dynasty ended State Religion Under Tang rule, Buddhism became state religion Buddhist temples appeared across land, missionaries spread Buddhism 400 to 845 in China, Age of Buddhism; ended when lost official favor The Age of Buddhism
Five Dynasties 907 A.D. – 960 A.D. Ten Kingdoms 920 A.D A.D. Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms was an era of political upheaval in China, between the fall of the Tang Dynasty and the founding of the Song Dynasty. During this period, five dynasties quickly succeeded one another in the north, and more than 10 independent states were established, mainly in the south.
Song established capital at Kaifeng, restored centralized government control Enlarged government bureaucracy, reformed civil service examination system Neo-Confucianism gained favor, emphasizing Confucian ethics, spiritual matters Government and Civil Service China split apart after Tang dynasty Did not reunify until 960 with Song dynasty Song ruled for about 300 years, created achievement, prosperity Under Song, Chinese civilization became most advanced in world After Tang Dynasty The Song Dynasty
Southern Song Song rulers never regained northern, western lands lost by Tang Tried to buy peace with threatening nomads by sending lavish gifts 1120s, nomadic people, Jurchen, conquered northern China, founded Jin empire Song continued in south as Southern Song dynasty 150 more years Civil Service Exams Extremely difficult to pass; those who did became scholar-officials Scholar-officials received good salary, were respected Civil service exams became more open to ordinary people Exams became pathway to gaining wealth, status
In 960 A.D., the Song Dynasty came to power. This was the first government in world history to issue paper money. This dynasty also saw the first known use of gunpowder, as well as first discernment of true north using a compass. Song Dynasty 960 to 1,279 A.D.
The Civil Service Exam Under the Sung Dynasty, the examination system attained the form it was to retain to the end of the dynastic system: - 3 levels of exams for different government positions - Students complained the exams were too difficult or that it was all memorization and irrelevant. - Many brought cheat sheets with them
Song [Sung] Dynasty, C.E. Creation of an urban, merchant, middle class. Increased emphasis on education & cheaper availability of printed books. Magnetic compass makes China a great sea power!
As a means to make multiple impressions, woodblock printing has a long history in China and was already well developed in the Tang Dynasty. By the time of the Song Dynasty, woodblock art was thriving.
Song Peasant Family
Rice Cultivation Began Under the Song
Song Rice Cultivation
Song Dynasty Prosperous and innovative Trade and Foreign Contact Great naval force Advanced farming techniques- Rice! Creation of block printing Use of algebra Abacus Use paper money Banking
Role of Women of the Song Practiced foot binding- meant to reflect wealth and prestige, crippled for life Servants to men
The Tang and Song dynasties were periods of great cultural achievement. Art and literature flourished, and many inventions and advances occurred in science and technology. Tang period produced some of China’s greatest poets Du Fu, Li Bo, two most famous Poems of Confucian ideals, joys of life Literature and Art Reached new heights Wu Daozi, murals celebrating Buddhism, nature Landscapes of great beauty Some used only black ink Painting Exquisite objects made from clay Tang: pottery figurines, often to go in tombs Song: excelled at making porcelain Admired, sought after worldwide Artisans Cultural Achievements
Architecture Indian Buddhist temples influenced design of Chinese pagoda Featured roofs at each floor curving upwards at corners Magnetic Compass Major Tang technical advance Uses Earth’s magnetic field to show direction Revolutionized sea travel, contributed to world exploration Inventions During Tang, Song periods, China became a world leader in technology, science Gunpowder major invention, used in fireworks, weapons Printing Paper, ink invented earlier Tang period, developed woodblock printing Text carved into wood, coated with ink, pressed on paper Inventions and Innovations
Paper Money Another Song invention Had used bulky metal disks placed on strings As economy grew, lighter, more useful form of currency developed Paper money light, easy to use, quickly spread in use in China Moveable Type Song dynasty invented another type of printing, moveable type Uses blocks on which letters, characters carved Blocks rearranged, reused to print many things Faster than woodblock, spread to Europe, revolutionized printing
In addition to cultural achievements, the Tang and Song periods were a time of growth and prosperity. Chinese agriculture became more productive –New irrigation techniques –New variety of rice –Production of cotton, tea increased Increased food production contributed to population growth Tang population 60 million, Song population 100 million Agriculture Improvements in roads, canals increased trade within China Foreign trade expanded, mostly over land routes like Silk Roads Late Tang: advances in sailing, shipbuilding helped sea trade Song: merchants became important in society; money, banking began to develop Trade Prosperity and Society
As farming, trade grew so did China’s cities China had largest cities in world at the time Tang capital, Chang’an, population more than 1 million, many cultures Song dynasty, several cities had million or more; sea trade caused port cities to boom Despite urban growth, most Chinese still lived, farmed in countryside Power of aristocratic families declined during period New class developed, gentry Included scholar-officials, leading landowners Most still peasants, farmers Paid most of taxes, little schooling Society Status of women declined, most visibly in upper classes Desire for small, dainty feet led to custom of footbinding Painful process to keep feet from growing, deformed feet over time Symbol of husband’s authority Women City Life