2 Chinese Empires Preview Starting Points Map: East Asia Main Idea / Reading FocusSui and Tang DynastiesFaces of History: Wu ZhaoThe Song DynastyMap: Tang and Song Dynasties
3 Chinese Empires Preview, continued Cultural Achievements Quick Facts: InnovationsProsperity and Society
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5 Chinese Empires Main Idea Reading Focus The Sui dynasty reunified China, after which the Tang and Song dynasties produced an age of prosperity and achievement.Reading FocusHow did the Sui and Tang dynasties reunify China?How did the Song dynasty strengthen China?What were some Tang and Song cultural achievements?How was this period a time of prosperity and social change?
6 Sui and Tang DynastiesThe Han dynasty ruled China from 206 BC to AD 220—more than 400 years. After the dynasty collapsed, military leaders split China into rival kingdoms. These events began a period of disorder and warfare that historians call the Period of Disunion.Nomads invaded northern China, formed own kingdomsMany northern Chinese fled south to region of Yangzi RiverA number of southern dynasties rose, fellThe Period of DisunionDespite these events, Chinese civilization thrived, developedNomadic invaders in north adopted aspects of Chinese civilizationNorthern Chinese immigrants’ culture blended with local cultures in south; arts, philosophy floweredCivilization ThrivedThe Period of Disunion lasted more than 350 years, ending when a northern ruler named Wendi reunified China, founding the Sui dynasty.
7 Centralized Government The Sui DynastyWendi worked to build centralized governmentRestored order, created new legal code, reformed bureaucracyCreated policies to provide adult males with land, ensure availability of grainCentralized GovernmentGreatest accomplishment of Sui dynasty, completed during reign of Yangdi, Wendi’s son1,000 mile waterway linked northern, southern ChinaYangdi forced millions of peasants to work on canal; led to discontent, rebellion618, Yangdi assassinated, Sui dynasty endedGrand Canal
8 The Tang Dynasty Period of Brilliance Built on Sui Foundations Tang dynasty ruled 618 to 907; Chinese influence spreadChina experienced period of brilliance, prosperity, cultural achievementGovernment, other institutions served as models across East AsiaBuilt on Sui FoundationsEstablished capital at Chang’an, Sui capitalSecond capital located at LuoyangGovernment control remained centralized, based on bureaucracy of officialsCivil ServiceTo obtain talented officials, Tang expanded civil service examination systemPeople had to pass written exams to work for governmentCreated flexible law code; model for law codes in Korea, Japan
9 Foreign Affairs Expansion Tang expanded China, Chinese influence Regained western lands in Central Asia, gained influence over KoreaContact with Japan increased; Japanese scholars came to China to studyExpansion, increased contact with others grew foreign tradeExpansionMuch of expansion occurred during reign of Taizong, 626 to 649Taizong relied on talented ministers to help governIn addition to military conquests, Taizong had schools built to prepare students for civil service examsAfter his death, one of his sons became emperor
10 New emperor was weak, sickly Wu ZhaoNew emperor was weak, sicklyEmperor’s wife, Wu Zhao gained powerFollowing death of husbandWu Zhao ruled through her sonsEventually became emperor herself—the only woman to do so in Chinese historyWu Zhao overthrown, 705Dynasty reached height under XuanzongDuring reign, 712 to 756, empire prospered
12 The Age of Buddhism From India State Religion Tang Decline Buddhism first came to China from India during Han timesDuring Period of Disunion many Chinese turned to BuddhismTaught people could escape suffering, appealed to people in turmoilState ReligionUnder Tang rule, Buddhism became state religionBuddhist temples appeared across land, missionaries spread Buddhism400 to 845 in China, Age of Buddhism; ended when lost official favorTang Decline750s, decline began, government weak, nomadic invasions, rebellionsMilitary defeats lost Tang lands in Central Asia and the north907, emperor killed, Tang dynasty ended
13 How did the Sui and Tang dynasties unite and expand China? SummarizeHow did the Sui and Tang dynasties unite and expand China?Answer(s): built centralized government; reformed laws and policies; built Grand Canal; Tang regained land in Central Asia and gained influence over neighboring states; increased contact with other peoples
14 Government and Civil Service The Song DynastyChina split apart after Tang dynastyDid not reunify until 960 with Song dynastySong ruled for about 300 years, created achievement, prosperityUnder Song, Chinese civilization became most advanced in worldAfter Tang DynastySong established capital at Kaifeng, restored centralized government controlEnlarged government bureaucracy, reformed civil service examination systemNeo-Confucianism gained favor, emphasizing Confucian ethics, spiritual mattersGovernment and Civil Service
15 Civil Service Exams Southern Song Extremely difficult to pass; those who did became scholar-officialsScholar-officials received good salary, were respectedCivil service exams became more open to ordinary peopleExams became pathway to gaining wealth, statusSouthern SongSong rulers never regained northern, western lands lost by TangTried to buy peace with threatening nomads by sending lavish gifts1120s, nomadic people, Jurchen, conquered northern China, founded Jin empireSong continued in south as Southern Song dynasty 150 more years
17 How did the Song strengthen China’s government? CompareHow did the Song strengthen China’s government?Answer(s): established capital at Kaifeng and restored centralized government control, enlarged bureaucracy, reformed civil service exam
18 Cultural Achievements The Tang and Song dynasties were periods of great cultural achievement. Art and literature flourished, and many inventions and advances occurred in science and technology.Tang period produced some of China’s greatest poetsDu Fu, Li Bo, two most famousPoems of Confucian ideals, joys of lifeLiterature and ArtReached new heightsWu Daozi, murals celebrating Buddhism, natureLandscapes of great beautySome used only black inkPaintingExquisite objects made from clayTang: pottery figurines, often to go in tombsSong: excelled at making porcelainAdmired, sought after worldwideArtisans
19 Inventions and Innovations ArchitectureIndian Buddhist temples influenced design of Chinese pagodaFeatured roofs at each floor curving upwards at cornersInventionsDuring Tang, Song periods, China became a world leader in technology, scienceGunpowder major invention, used in fireworks, weaponsMagnetic CompassMajor Tang technical advanceUses Earth’s magnetic field to show directionRevolutionized sea travel, contributed to world explorationPrintingPaper, ink invented earlierTang period, developed woodblock printingText carved into wood, coated with ink, pressed on paper
20 Moveable Type Paper Money Song dynasty invented another type of printing, moveable typeUses blocks on which letters, characters carvedBlocks rearranged, reused to print many thingsFaster than woodblock, spread to Europe, revolutionized printingPaper MoneyAnother Song inventionHad used bulky metal disks placed on stringsAs economy grew, lighter, more useful form of currency developedPaper money light, easy to use, quickly spread in use in China
22 Identify Cause and Effect How did Chinese innovations affect world history?Answer(s): Gunpowder dramatically affected how wars were fought; the compass allowed for world navigation; printing innovations led to increased sharing of ideas.
23 Prosperity and Society In addition to cultural achievements, the Tang and Song periods were a time of growth and prosperity.Chinese agriculture became more productiveNew irrigation techniquesNew variety of riceProduction of cotton, tea increasedIncreased food production contributed to population growthTang population 60 million, Song population 100 millionAgricultureImprovements in roads, canals increased trade within ChinaForeign trade expanded, mostly over land routes like Silk RoadsLate Tang: advances in sailing, shipbuilding helped sea tradeSong: merchants became important in society; money, banking began to developTrade
24 City Life Society Women As farming, trade grew so did China’s cities China had largest cities in world at the timeTang capital, Chang’an, population more than 1 million, many culturesSong dynasty, several cities had million or more; sea trade caused port cities to boomDespite urban growth, most Chinese still lived, farmed in countrysidePower of aristocratic families declined during periodNew class developed, gentryIncluded scholar-officials, leading landownersMost still peasants, farmersPaid most of taxes, little schoolingSocietyStatus of women declined, most visibly in upper classesDesire for small, dainty feet led to custom of footbindingPainful process to keep feet from growing, deformed feet over timeSymbol of husband’s authorityWomen
25 Draw ConclusionsHow did footbinding reflect changes in attitudes toward women in China?Answer(s): became symbol of husband's authority over wife; women's status declined