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Chinese Empires Preview Starting Points Map: East Asia

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Presentation on theme: "Chinese Empires Preview Starting Points Map: East Asia"— Presentation transcript:


2 Chinese Empires Preview Starting Points Map: East Asia
Main Idea / Reading Focus Sui and Tang Dynasties Faces of History: Wu Zhao The Song Dynasty Map: Tang and Song Dynasties

3 Chinese Empires Preview, continued Cultural Achievements
Quick Facts: Innovations Prosperity and Society

4 Click the icon to play Listen to History audio.
Click the icon below to connect to the Interactive Maps.

5 Chinese Empires Main Idea Reading Focus
The Sui dynasty reunified China, after which the Tang and Song dynasties produced an age of prosperity and achievement. Reading Focus How did the Sui and Tang dynasties reunify China? How did the Song dynasty strengthen China? What were some Tang and Song cultural achievements? How was this period a time of prosperity and social change?

6 Sui and Tang Dynasties The Han dynasty ruled China from 206 BC to AD 220—more than 400 years. After the dynasty collapsed, military leaders split China into rival kingdoms. These events began a period of disorder and warfare that historians call the Period of Disunion. Nomads invaded northern China, formed own kingdoms Many northern Chinese fled south to region of Yangzi River A number of southern dynasties rose, fell The Period of Disunion Despite these events, Chinese civilization thrived, developed Nomadic invaders in north adopted aspects of Chinese civilization Northern Chinese immigrants’ culture blended with local cultures in south; arts, philosophy flowered Civilization Thrived The Period of Disunion lasted more than 350 years, ending when a northern ruler named Wendi reunified China, founding the Sui dynasty.

7 Centralized Government
The Sui Dynasty Wendi worked to build centralized government Restored order, created new legal code, reformed bureaucracy Created policies to provide adult males with land, ensure availability of grain Centralized Government Greatest accomplishment of Sui dynasty, completed during reign of Yangdi, Wendi’s son 1,000 mile waterway linked northern, southern China Yangdi forced millions of peasants to work on canal; led to discontent, rebellion 618, Yangdi assassinated, Sui dynasty ended Grand Canal

8 The Tang Dynasty Period of Brilliance Built on Sui Foundations
Tang dynasty ruled 618 to 907; Chinese influence spread China experienced period of brilliance, prosperity, cultural achievement Government, other institutions served as models across East Asia Built on Sui Foundations Established capital at Chang’an, Sui capital Second capital located at Luoyang Government control remained centralized, based on bureaucracy of officials Civil Service To obtain talented officials, Tang expanded civil service examination system People had to pass written exams to work for government Created flexible law code; model for law codes in Korea, Japan

9 Foreign Affairs Expansion Tang expanded China, Chinese influence
Regained western lands in Central Asia, gained influence over Korea Contact with Japan increased; Japanese scholars came to China to study Expansion, increased contact with others grew foreign trade Expansion Much of expansion occurred during reign of Taizong, 626 to 649 Taizong relied on talented ministers to help govern In addition to military conquests, Taizong had schools built to prepare students for civil service exams After his death, one of his sons became emperor

10 New emperor was weak, sickly
Wu Zhao New emperor was weak, sickly Emperor’s wife, Wu Zhao gained power Following death of husband Wu Zhao ruled through her sons Eventually became emperor herself—the only woman to do so in Chinese history Wu Zhao overthrown, 705 Dynasty reached height under Xuanzong During reign, 712 to 756, empire prospered


12 The Age of Buddhism From India State Religion Tang Decline
Buddhism first came to China from India during Han times During Period of Disunion many Chinese turned to Buddhism Taught people could escape suffering, appealed to people in turmoil State Religion Under Tang rule, Buddhism became state religion Buddhist temples appeared across land, missionaries spread Buddhism 400 to 845 in China, Age of Buddhism; ended when lost official favor Tang Decline 750s, decline began, government weak, nomadic invasions, rebellions Military defeats lost Tang lands in Central Asia and the north 907, emperor killed, Tang dynasty ended

13 How did the Sui and Tang dynasties unite and expand China?
Summarize How did the Sui and Tang dynasties unite and expand China? Answer(s): built centralized government; reformed laws and policies; built Grand Canal; Tang regained land in Central Asia and gained influence over neighboring states; increased contact with other peoples

14 Government and Civil Service
The Song Dynasty China split apart after Tang dynasty Did not reunify until 960 with Song dynasty Song ruled for about 300 years, created achievement, prosperity Under Song, Chinese civilization became most advanced in world After Tang Dynasty Song established capital at Kaifeng, restored centralized government control Enlarged government bureaucracy, reformed civil service examination system Neo-Confucianism gained favor, emphasizing Confucian ethics, spiritual matters Government and Civil Service

15 Civil Service Exams Southern Song
Extremely difficult to pass; those who did became scholar-officials Scholar-officials received good salary, were respected Civil service exams became more open to ordinary people Exams became pathway to gaining wealth, status Southern Song Song rulers never regained northern, western lands lost by Tang Tried to buy peace with threatening nomads by sending lavish gifts 1120s, nomadic people, Jurchen, conquered northern China, founded Jin empire Song continued in south as Southern Song dynasty 150 more years


17 How did the Song strengthen China’s government?
Compare How did the Song strengthen China’s government? Answer(s): established capital at Kaifeng and restored centralized government control, enlarged bureaucracy, reformed civil service exam

18 Cultural Achievements
The Tang and Song dynasties were periods of great cultural achievement. Art and literature flourished, and many inventions and advances occurred in science and technology. Tang period produced some of China’s greatest poets Du Fu, Li Bo, two most famous Poems of Confucian ideals, joys of life Literature and Art Reached new heights Wu Daozi, murals celebrating Buddhism, nature Landscapes of great beauty Some used only black ink Painting Exquisite objects made from clay Tang: pottery figurines, often to go in tombs Song: excelled at making porcelain Admired, sought after worldwide Artisans

19 Inventions and Innovations
Architecture Indian Buddhist temples influenced design of Chinese pagoda Featured roofs at each floor curving upwards at corners Inventions During Tang, Song periods, China became a world leader in technology, science Gunpowder major invention, used in fireworks, weapons Magnetic Compass Major Tang technical advance Uses Earth’s magnetic field to show direction Revolutionized sea travel, contributed to world exploration Printing Paper, ink invented earlier Tang period, developed woodblock printing Text carved into wood, coated with ink, pressed on paper

20 Moveable Type Paper Money
Song dynasty invented another type of printing, moveable type Uses blocks on which letters, characters carved Blocks rearranged, reused to print many things Faster than woodblock, spread to Europe, revolutionized printing Paper Money Another Song invention Had used bulky metal disks placed on strings As economy grew, lighter, more useful form of currency developed Paper money light, easy to use, quickly spread in use in China


22 Identify Cause and Effect
How did Chinese innovations affect world history? Answer(s): Gunpowder dramatically affected how wars were fought; the compass allowed for world navigation; printing innovations led to increased sharing of ideas.

23 Prosperity and Society
In addition to cultural achievements, the Tang and Song periods were a time of growth and prosperity. Chinese agriculture became more productive New irrigation techniques New variety of rice Production of cotton, tea increased Increased food production contributed to population growth Tang population 60 million, Song population 100 million Agriculture Improvements in roads, canals increased trade within China Foreign trade expanded, mostly over land routes like Silk Roads Late Tang: advances in sailing, shipbuilding helped sea trade Song: merchants became important in society; money, banking began to develop Trade

24 City Life Society Women As farming, trade grew so did China’s cities
China had largest cities in world at the time Tang capital, Chang’an, population more than 1 million, many cultures Song dynasty, several cities had million or more; sea trade caused port cities to boom Despite urban growth, most Chinese still lived, farmed in countryside Power of aristocratic families declined during period New class developed, gentry Included scholar-officials, leading landowners Most still peasants, farmers Paid most of taxes, little schooling Society Status of women declined, most visibly in upper classes Desire for small, dainty feet led to custom of footbinding Painful process to keep feet from growing, deformed feet over time Symbol of husband’s authority Women

25 Draw Conclusions How did footbinding reflect changes in attitudes toward women in China? Answer(s): became symbol of husband's authority over wife; women's status declined

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