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Diffusion Welding.

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Presentation on theme: "Diffusion Welding."— Presentation transcript:

1 Diffusion Welding

2 Diffusion Welding Learning Activities View Slides; Lesson Objectives
Read Notes, Listen to lecture Do on-line workbook Lesson Objectives When you finish this lesson you will understand: Diffusion Welding Definition, Characteristics, Process & Applications Diffusion Coefficients & Kirkendall Effect Interface Interactions & Dissimilar Metals Keywords: Diffusion Welding, Diffusion Brazing, Transient Liquid Phase Bonding, Diffusion Coefficient, Kirkendall Porosity

3 Linnert, Welding Metallurgy,
AWS, 1994

4 Definition of Diffusion Welding
A solid-state welding process that produces coalescence of the faying surfaces by the application of pressure at elevated temperature. The process does not involve macroscopic deformation, or relative motion of the workpieces. A solid filler metal may or may not be inserted between the faying surfaces. Work pieces Force A B Schematic representation of diffusion welding using electrical resistance for heating

5 AWS Welding Handbook

6 Diffusion Welding Working Principles
1st stage deformation and interfacial boundary formation asperities come into contact. 1st stage deformation forming interfacial boundary. 2nd stage Grain boundary migration and pore elimination. 3rd stage Volume diffusion and pore elimination. 2nd stage grain boundary migration and pore elimination 3rd stage volume diffusion pore elimination Two necessary conditions must be met before a satisfactory diffusion weld can be made. They are: (a) Mechanical intimacy of the faying surfaces. (b) Disruption and dispersion of surface contaminants Stage 1 involves deformation of asperities. This deformation may be temperature and time dependent, similar to creep. Stage 2 includes boundary migration, recrystallization, and pore size reduction. Stage 3 involves bulk diffusion phenomenon including oxide and contaminant desolution, and further pore size reduction.

7 Free Energy as Atom Reversibly Moves
Diffusion in Solids - Shewmon

8 Factors Influencing Diffusion Welding (Relation between Temperature and Diffusion Coefficient)
D = D0 e -Q/KT D = Diffusion coefficient D0 = Diffusion constant Q = Activation energy T = Absolute temperature K = Boltzman’s constant Diffusion-controlled processes are temperature dependent as indicated above


10 Factors Influencing Diffusion Welding
Temperature ( effects diffusion coefficient) Time X = C (Dt)1/2 = Diffusion Length X = Diffusion length C = A constant D = Diffusion coefficient (see previous slide) t =Time Pressure Diffusion welding is dependent on temperature, time, and applied pressure. Temperature and time are related through characteristic diffusion distances described in the above equation. Pressure influences diffusion welding in a more complex way. Compressive stress (pressure) must be present in diffusion welding, but the required loading might be well below the room temperature yield strength of the materials being welded.




14 AWS Welding Handbook


16 Applications of Diffusion Welding
Application in titanium welding for aero-space vehicles. Diffusion welding of nickel alloys include Inconel 600, wrought Udimet 700, and Rene 41. Dissimilar metal diffusion welding applications include Cu to Ti, Cu to Al, and Cu to Cb-1%Zr. Brittle intermetallic compound formation must be controlled in these applications.

17 Titanium Diffusion Welding
Temp As High As Possible Without Damage to Base Metal 75 to 100 F below Alpha-Beta Transus (eg 1700F) Time varies with other facts below but 1 hr to 4 hour typical Pressure near yield (at temp) Smooth Faying Surface (rough surfaces = more time, pressure) Clean Surface (usually acid cleaning) Space Shuttle designed to have 28 Diffusion Welding Components

18 Superplastic Formed & Diffusion Bonded Titanium Heat Exchanger
Superplastic forming and diffusion bonding of alloy titanium have been utilized in the development of plate/fin heat exchanger, for arduous offshore duty, which offers a compact, lightweight, low media inventory solution to a wide variety of management problems. This slide describes the design of this concept. Froes, FH, et al, “Non-Aerospace Applications of Titanium” Feb 1998, TMS

19 Nickel Diffusion Welding (More Difficult to Weld)
Temp close to MP High Pressure (because High hot strength) Clean Surfaces - Ambient Atmosphere Control (Surface Oxides Do Not Dissolve) Nickel Filler often used (especially for rough surface)

20 AWS Welding Handbook

21 Without Nickel Filler Metal Fine Ti(C,N) and NiTiO3
Forms Reducing Strength With Ni Filler Metal No Precipitates Formed Grain Boundary Migration But Excessive Ni3Al ppt. With Ni-35% Co Good Joint Obtained AWS Welding Handbook

22 Diffusion Welding of Dissimilar Metals
Some Potential Problems An intermetallic phase or a brittle intermetallic compound may form at the weld interface. Selection of an appropriate filler metal can usually prevent such problems. Joint designs can help also. Low melting phases may form. Sometime this effect is beneficial Porosity may form due to unequal rates of metal transfer by diffusion in the region adjacent to the weld (Kirkendall Porosity). Proper welding conditions or the use of and appropriate filler metal or both may prevent this problem.

23 AWS Welding Handbook

24 Questions

25 Some Specific Applications Of Diffusion Welding

26 AWS Welding Handbook

27 AWS Welding Handbook

28 Diffusion Welding and Superplastic Forming for Aircraft Structure
Sheets of superplastic material (ex. Al) stacked with stop-off material (silica) painted on specific areas Diffusion bonding at 14 (stop-off areas 12) Pressure gas expands stop-off areas Top cut off if required In many aerospace applications, the production of a frame structure is important. A traditional way of manufacture is to machine the structure with its supporting ribs out of a solid piece of aluminum or titanium. A second manufacturing method might be forging the part to near shape and then machining. Both method result in material loss and the expensive machining process. This alternate method of production is diffusion bonding followed by super-plastic forming. A pack of sheets are bonded together except in certain areas. Gas is injected into those areas to inflate the pack super plastically to form one or more closed cells. The top of the cells may be machined off with the side walls of the cells are retained, to provide a frame having cantilever reinforcing ribs. Collier et al, “Method of Manufacturing Structural Parts, Particularly for use in Aircraft” US Patent 6,039,239 Mar 21, 2000

29 Ceramic Turbocharger Rotor (Diffusion bonded to Intermediate &
Ceramic Turbocharger Rotor (Diffusion bonded to Intermediate & Friction Welded to Shaft) Diffusion Layer Ceramic Intermediate Member Metal Shaft This particular turbine rotor includes a ceramic turbine wheel made of silicon nitride diffusion bonded to an intermediate member made from W alloy and joined to the rotor shaft of the ceramic rotor by way of a Ni plate diffusion bond. The subassembly is friction welded to metal shaft. Ito, M, et al, “Ceramic-Metal Composite Assembly” Patent 5,881,607 Mar 16, 1999

30 Questions

31 Some Applications Diffusion Brazing Low Melting inter-layer
Melts & then diffuses into substrate Generally more rapid diffusion Some Applications

32 Liquid Phase Diffusion Bonding for Clad Steel Plates
Sheets Stacked (2 sets) with bonding activator between sheets and separator between clad plates Evacuated & Diffusion Bonded Steel Substrate Bonding Activator (Ni4P) Nickel Clad Material A method of manufacturing clad metal plate by assembling in a stacked array a bottom base plate, a first cladding plate, a second cladding plate and a top base pleat, with a separator compound layer between the first and second cladding plates is described by this patent. A metal rail is welded between the base plates and circumferentially of the cladding plates to form and assembly having a closed environment. The plates were then liquid interface diffusion bonded. Separator Compound (silica) Turner, W. “Method of Manufacturing Clad Metal Plates” US Patent 6,015,080 Jan 18, 2000

33 Diffusion Brazing of Aluminum
AWS Welding Handbook

34 A Titanium Alloy Stiffened Sheet Structure
Fabricated by Continuous Seam Diffusion Braze Courtesy AWS handbook

35 Electrolytically Plated Copper Film Copper Layers React with Ti to form Eutectic Braze Alloy Use Similar Parameters as Diffusion Weld

36 Titanium Braze Plated Copper
A Widmanstaatten structure formed at the braze interface because the plated filler metal stabilized the beta phase. AWS Welding Handbook

37 Nickel Brazing Braze Alloy
Nickel with melting Point Depressants (Silicon, Boron, Manganese, Aluminum, Titanium or Columbium Method 1 Method 2

38 Nickel Braze - Isothermal Solidification
AWS Welding Handbook

39 Nickel Braze - Reheat for Diffusion
AWS Welding Handbook

40 Check Web Page For Homework Assignment

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