4 Definition of Diffusion Welding A solid-state welding process that produces coalescence of the faying surfaces by the application of pressure at elevated temperature.The process does not involve macroscopic deformation, or relative motion of the workpieces.A solid filler metal may or may not be inserted between the faying surfaces.Work piecesForceABSchematic representation ofdiffusion welding usingelectrical resistance for heating
6 Diffusion Welding Working Principles 1st stage deformationand interfacial boundaryformationasperities come into contact.1st stagedeformation forming interfacial boundary.2nd stageGrain boundary migration and pore elimination.3rd stageVolume diffusion and pore elimination.2nd stage grainboundary migrationand pore elimination3rd stage volumediffusion poreeliminationTwo necessary conditions must be met before a satisfactory diffusion weld can be made. They are:(a) Mechanical intimacy of the faying surfaces.(b) Disruption and dispersion of surface contaminantsStage 1 involves deformation of asperities. This deformation may be temperature and time dependent, similar to creep.Stage 2 includes boundary migration, recrystallization, and pore size reduction.Stage 3 involves bulk diffusion phenomenon including oxide and contaminant desolution, and further pore size reduction.
7 Free Energy as Atom Reversibly Moves Diffusion in Solids - Shewmon
8 Factors Influencing Diffusion Welding (Relation between Temperature and Diffusion Coefficient) D = D0 e -Q/KTD = Diffusion coefficientD0 = Diffusion constantQ = Activation energyT = Absolute temperatureK = Boltzman’s constantDiffusion-controlled processes are temperature dependent as indicated above
10 Factors Influencing Diffusion Welding Temperature ( effects diffusion coefficient)TimeX = C (Dt)1/2 = Diffusion LengthX = Diffusion lengthC = A constantD = Diffusion coefficient (see previous slide)t =TimePressureDiffusion welding is dependent on temperature, time, and applied pressure. Temperature and time are related through characteristic diffusion distances described in the above equation. Pressure influences diffusion welding in a more complex way. Compressive stress (pressure) must be present in diffusion welding, but the required loading might be well below the room temperature yield strength of the materials being welded.
16 Applications of Diffusion Welding Application in titanium welding for aero-space vehicles.Diffusion welding of nickel alloys include Inconel 600, wrought Udimet 700, and Rene 41.Dissimilar metal diffusion welding applications include Cu to Ti, Cu to Al, and Cu to Cb-1%Zr. Brittle intermetallic compound formation must be controlled in these applications.
17 Titanium Diffusion Welding Temp As High As Possible Without Damage to Base Metal75 to 100 F below Alpha-Beta Transus (eg 1700F)Time varies with other facts below but 1 hr to 4 hour typicalPressure near yield (at temp)Smooth Faying Surface (rough surfaces = more time, pressure)Clean Surface (usually acid cleaning)Space Shuttle designed to have 28 Diffusion Welding Components
18 Superplastic Formed & Diffusion Bonded Titanium Heat Exchanger Superplastic forming and diffusion bonding of alloy titanium have been utilized in the development of plate/fin heat exchanger, for arduous offshore duty, which offers a compact, lightweight, low media inventory solution to a wide variety of management problems. This slide describes the design of this concept.Froes, FH, et al, “Non-Aerospace Applications of Titanium” Feb 1998, TMS
19 Nickel Diffusion Welding (More Difficult to Weld) Temp close to MPHigh Pressure (because High hot strength)Clean Surfaces - Ambient Atmosphere Control(Surface Oxides Do Not Dissolve)Nickel Filler often used (especially for rough surface)
21 Without Nickel Filler Metal Fine Ti(C,N) and NiTiO3 Forms Reducing StrengthWith Ni Filler MetalNo Precipitates FormedGrain Boundary MigrationBut Excessive Ni3Al ppt.With Ni-35% CoGood Joint ObtainedAWS Welding Handbook
22 Diffusion Welding of Dissimilar Metals Some Potential ProblemsAn intermetallic phase or a brittle intermetallic compound may form at the weld interface. Selection of an appropriate filler metal can usually prevent such problems. Joint designs can help also.Low melting phases may form. Sometime this effect is beneficialPorosity may form due to unequal rates of metal transfer by diffusion in the region adjacent to the weld (Kirkendall Porosity). Proper welding conditions or the use of and appropriate filler metal or both may prevent this problem.
28 Diffusion Welding and Superplastic Forming for Aircraft Structure Sheets of superplastic material (ex. Al) stacked with stop-off material (silica) painted on specific areasDiffusion bonding at 14 (stop-off areas 12)Pressure gas expands stop-off areasTop cut off if requiredIn many aerospace applications, the production of a frame structure is important. A traditional way of manufacture is to machine the structure with its supporting ribs out of a solid piece of aluminum or titanium. A second manufacturing method might be forging the part to near shape and then machining. Both method result in material loss and the expensive machining process. This alternate method of production is diffusion bonding followed by super-plastic forming. A pack of sheets are bonded together except in certain areas. Gas is injected into those areas to inflate the pack super plastically to form one or more closed cells. The top of the cells may be machined off with the side walls of the cells are retained, to provide a frame having cantilever reinforcing ribs.Collier et al, “Method of Manufacturing Structural Parts, Particularly for use in Aircraft” US Patent 6,039,239 Mar 21, 2000
29 Ceramic Turbocharger Rotor (Diffusion bonded to Intermediate & Ceramic Turbocharger Rotor (Diffusion bonded to Intermediate & Friction Welded to Shaft)Diffusion LayerCeramicIntermediateMemberMetalShaftThis particular turbine rotor includes a ceramic turbine wheel made of silicon nitride diffusion bonded to an intermediate member made from W alloy and joined to the rotor shaft of the ceramic rotor by way of a Ni plate diffusion bond. The subassembly is friction welded to metal shaft.Ito, M, et al, “Ceramic-Metal Composite Assembly” Patent 5,881,607 Mar 16, 1999
31 Some Applications Diffusion Brazing Low Melting inter-layer Melts & then diffuses into substrateGenerally more rapid diffusionSome Applications
32 Liquid Phase Diffusion Bonding for Clad Steel Plates Sheets Stacked (2 sets) with bonding activator between sheets and separator between clad platesEvacuated & Diffusion BondedSteel SubstrateBonding Activator (Ni4P)Nickel Clad MaterialA method of manufacturing clad metal plate by assembling in a stacked array a bottom base plate, a first cladding plate, a second cladding plate and a top base pleat, with a separator compound layer between the first and second cladding plates is described by this patent. A metal rail is welded between the base plates and circumferentially of the cladding plates to form and assembly having a closed environment. The plates were then liquid interface diffusion bonded.Separator Compound (silica)Turner, W. “Method of Manufacturing Clad Metal Plates” US Patent 6,015,080 Jan 18, 2000
33 Diffusion Brazing of Aluminum AWS Welding Handbook
34 A Titanium Alloy Stiffened Sheet Structure Fabricated by Continuous Seam Diffusion BrazeCourtesy AWS handbook
35 ElectrolyticallyPlatedCopperFilmCopper LayersReact with Tito form EutecticBraze AlloyUse SimilarParameters asDiffusion Weld
36 Titanium Braze Plated Copper A Widmanstaatten structure formed at the braze interface because the plated filler metal stabilized the beta phase.AWS Welding Handbook
37 Nickel Brazing Braze Alloy Nickel with melting Point Depressants (Silicon, Boron, Manganese, Aluminum, Titanium or ColumbiumMethod 1Method 2