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Clad Materials. Resistance Welding Lesson Objectives When you finish this lesson you will understand: Learning Activities 1.View Slides; 2.Read Notes,

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Presentation on theme: "Clad Materials. Resistance Welding Lesson Objectives When you finish this lesson you will understand: Learning Activities 1.View Slides; 2.Read Notes,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Clad Materials

2 Resistance Welding Lesson Objectives When you finish this lesson you will understand: Learning Activities 1.View Slides; 2.Read Notes, 3.Listen to lecture 4.Do on-line workbook Keywords

3 Steel - Aluminum Cladding Cleaning Rolling a. Cold b F Post-Heating ~ 1000F

4 Hansen, Const of Binary Alloys McGraw-Hill, 1958

5 Aluminum Steel FeAl 3, Fe 2 Al 5 (Brittle) Si > 0.25% in Steel Tends to Reduce Brittle Iron- Alumindes Thus Higher Post Roll Temperatures can be employed Steel Aluminum Steel Aluminum

6 Oikawa et al, RSW of Steel & Al Sheet Using Insert, Science & Tech of Welding & Joining, vol4, 1999 Fe-Al Clad Material

7 Table of Steel and Aluminum Properties

8 Heat Flow in Spot Welding (Fe - Al) Steel Aluminum Fe Al Fe Al The lower MP of Aluminum Causes Rapid Nugget Growth Which Can Lead to Al Expulsion A Larger Electrode on the Al Side Might Help

9 Chang et al, Spot Welding Al to Steel, Practical Welding Today, May/June 1999

10 Steel Aluminum Fe-Al Weld

11 Oikawa et al, RSW of Steel & Al Sheet Using Insert, Science & Tech of Welding & Joining, vol4, 1999 Fe-Al Fe-Fe/Al-Al IMC = Fe 2 Al 5

12 Chang et al, Spot Welding Al to Steel, Practical Welding Today, May/June 1999

13 Oikawa et al, RSW of Steel & Al Sheet Using Insert, Science & Tech of Welding & Joining, vol4, 1999 Fracture Occurred on Tensile Load At the IMC Interface With Thinner Aluminum Sheet, Fracture Occurred by Nugget Pull-out

14 Chang et al, Spot Welding Al to Steel, Practical Welding Today, May/June 1999

15 Heat Flow in Spot Welding (Fe - Trans - Al) Steel Aluminum

16 Oikawa et al, RSW of Steel & Al Sheet Using Insert, Science & Tech of Welding & Joining, vol4, 1999 Steel Aluminum Steel Aluminum Transition Fe-Fe/Al-Al Weld

17 Chang et al, Spot Welding Al to Steel, Practical Welding Today, May/June 1999 Weld With 2 mm Steel

18 Chang et al, Spot Welding Al to Steel, Practical Welding Today, May/June MM Thick Steel (Faster Cooling) Shrinkage Voids in Al Due to Faster Cooling

19 Oikawa et al, RSW of Steel & Al Sheet Using Insert, Science & Tech of Welding & Joining, vol4, 1999

20 Chang et al, Spot Welding Al to Steel, Practical Welding Today, May/June 1999

21 Titanium Aluminum Aluminum - Titanium

22 Properties of Ti & Al

23 Ti-Ti Welds Aluminum High Conductivity Low Resistivity Low MP Titanium Low Conductivity High Resistivity High MP Ti melts, Heat flows to Al (melts a little because lower MP) but because of High Al Conductivity, Heat conducted to Electrodes

24 Watanabe, Resistance Welding of Ti/Al clad plate, Welding International, May 1996

25 Watanabe, Resistance Welding of Ti/Al clad plate, Welding International, May 1996

26 The high MP & high Resistance Ti pushes heat into the Aluminum Causing melting and expulsion along the Interface Ti-Al Welds Electrode Indented Forcing Al Expulsion Ti Al

27 Ti Al Ti Al Ti to Al Weld Watanabe, Resistance Welding of Ti/Al clad plate, Welding International, May 1996

28 Watanabe, Resistance Welding of Ti/Al clad plate, Welding International, May 1996

29 No Current Range Expulsion Watanabe, Resistance Welding of Ti/Al clad plate, Welding International, May 1996

30 Oxide film between Al & Ti prevents interdiffusion This also promotes Interfacial Failure Watanabe, Resistance Welding of Ti/Al clad plate, Welding International, May 1996

31 Al-Al Welds Case 1 Electrode Free to Move Case 2 Electrode Restrained

32 Watanabe, Resistance Welding of Ti/Al clad plate, Welding International, May 1996

33 No Restraint With Restraint Watanabe, Resistance Welding of Ti/Al clad plate, Welding International, May 1996

34 Watanabe, Resistance Welding of Ti/Al clad plate, Welding International, May 1996

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40 Aluminum Stainless Steel Stainless Steel Clad Aluminum & Copper Copper Stainless Steel Hot Rolled


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