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Non-Arc Welding Processes 1998/1998/MJ1/MatJoin4/1 Non Arc Welding Processes Resistance Weld High Energy Density Friction Welding Brazing & Soldering Plastics.

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Presentation on theme: "Non-Arc Welding Processes 1998/1998/MJ1/MatJoin4/1 Non Arc Welding Processes Resistance Weld High Energy Density Friction Welding Brazing & Soldering Plastics."— Presentation transcript:

1 Non-Arc Welding Processes 1998/1998/MJ1/MatJoin4/1 Non Arc Welding Processes Resistance Weld High Energy Density Friction Welding Brazing & Soldering Plastics Joining

2 Lesson Objectives When you finish this lesson you will understand: Resistance Weldability and Various Resistance Welding Processes Oxy-fuel welding and cutting principles Solid state welding processes and comparisons between them Advantages and disadvantages of each process Learning Activities 1.Read Handbook pp 16-30 2.Look Up Keywords 3.View Slides; 4.Read Notes, 5.Listen to lecture 6.View Video 7.Do on-line workbook 8.Do Homework Keywords: Resistance Spot Welding, Seam Welding, Spot Weldability Lobe, Oxy-Acetylene Torch, Friction Welding, Diffusion Welding, Ultrasonic Welding, Explosive Welding Non-Arc Welding Processes (Part 1)

3 Non-Arc Welding Processes 1998/1998/MJ1/MatJoin4/3 Non-Arc Welding Processes l Resistive heating, chemical reactions, focused light and electrons, sound waves, and friction can also be used to join materials Resistance welding Oxy-Fuel Welding Friction welding (&Solid State) Laser and electron beam welding Brazing and soldering Plastics joining Adhesive bonding Introduction

4 Non-Arc Welding Processes 1998/1998/MJ1/MatJoin4/4 Resistance Welding l The resistance of metal to the localized flow of current produces heat l Process variables Current Time Force l Spot and seam welding Spot welding Resistance Welding

5 Non-Arc Welding Processes 1998/1998/MJ1/MatJoin4/5 electrode Spot Weld

6 Non-Arc Welding Processes 1998/1998/MJ1/MatJoin4/6 Electrodes l Electrode tips wear during service, causing nugget size to decrease l Zinc-coating on steel alloys with copper electrodes to form brass l Copper base materials, divided into classes Truncated cone Dome Pointed Resistance Welding

7 Non-Arc Welding Processes 1998/1998/MJ1/MatJoin4/7 Operating Window - Lobe Curve Current (1000’s of amperes) Time (cycles of current) ExpulsionNugget too small Acceptable nugget size Constant electrode force Resistance Welding

8 Non-Arc Welding Processes 1998/1998/MJ1/MatJoin4/8

9 Non-Arc Welding Processes 1998/1998/MJ1/MatJoin4/9 Roll spot weld Overlapping seam weld Continuous seam weld

10 Non-Arc Welding Processes 1998/1998/MJ1/MatJoin4/10 Resistance Welding Advantages High speed, < 0.1 seconds in automotive spot welds Excellent for sheet metal applications, < ¼-inch No filler metal

11 Non-Arc Welding Processes 1998/1998/MJ1/MatJoin4/11 Process Disadvantages and Limitations l Higher equipment costs than arc welding l Power line demands l Nondestructive testing l Low tensile and fatigue strength l Not portable l Electrode wear l Lap joint requires additional metal Resistance Welding

12 Non-Arc Welding Processes 1998/1998/MJ1/MatJoin4/12 Link to the “Resistance Welding Videos from the Video Page on the WE300 Webpage

13 Non-Arc Welding Processes 1998/1998/MJ1/MatJoin4/13 Turn to the person sitting next to you and discuss (1 min.): If the Lobe Curve represents the welding parameter combinations which produce good welds, why do so many of the automotive spot welds have expulsion? Turn to the person sitting next to you and discuss (1 min.): When spot welds are place too close to one another, some of the current from the second weld shunts thru the first. Why then can overlap seam welds work when the welds are so close that they overlap?

14 Non-Arc Welding Processes 1998/1998/MJ1/MatJoin4/14 Non-Arc Welding Processes l Resistive heating, chemical reactions, focused light and electrons, sound waves, and friction can also be used to join materials Resistance welding Oxy-Fuel Welding Friction welding (&Solid State) Laser and electron beam welding Brazing and soldering Plastics joining Adhesive bonding Introduction

15 Non-Arc Welding Processes 1998/1998/MJ1/MatJoin4/15 ( Oxygen from torch) (Oxygen from Air) Linnert, Welding Metallurgy, AWS, 1994

16 Non-Arc Welding Processes 1998/1998/MJ1/MatJoin4/16 Thermite Welding Liquid Base Metal Power Fe 2 O 3 + 2Al > 2Fe + Al 2 O 3 + heat

17 Non-Arc Welding Processes 1998/1998/MJ1/MatJoin4/17 Turn to the person sitting next to you and discuss (1 min.): The oxy-fuel and that thermit welding are both chemical burning reactions. In the first oxygen is supplied by oxygen gas, in the thermit welding, it is supplied by the iron oxide. Why does this aluminum “burning” in the thermit welding work?

18 Non-Arc Welding Processes 1998/1998/MJ1/MatJoin4/18 Non-Arc Welding Processes l Resistive heating, chemical reactions, focused light and electrons, sound waves, and friction can also be used to join materials Resistance welding Oxy-Fuel Welding Friction welding (&Solid State) Laser and electron beam welding Brazing and soldering Plastics joining Adhesive bonding Introduction

19 Non-Arc Welding Processes 1998/1998/MJ1/MatJoin4/19 Solid-State Welding l Processes that produce a weld through the application of pressure at a temperature below the melting temperature of the base material; no filler metal is used Friction welding Diffusion welding Ultrasonic welding Explosion welding 0.1.1.2.2.T9.95.12

20 Non-Arc Welding Processes 1998/1998/MJ1/MatJoin4/20 Friction Welding (FRW) 0.1.1.2.2.T10.95.12

21 Non-Arc Welding Processes 1998/1998/MJ1/MatJoin4/21 Friction Welding - Advantages l For correct part geometry, friction welding is faster than most other processes l Can join dissimilar materials together Copper to steel or aluminum l Easily automated for high volume production l Can join plastics Friction Welding

22 Non-Arc Welding Processes 1998/1998/MJ1/MatJoin4/22 Limitations of Friction Welding l Start-up cost is high l Parts must be able to rotate about an axis of symmetry l Free machining alloys are difficult to weld l Non-forgeable materials cannot be friction welded Friction Welding

23 Non-Arc Welding Processes 1998/1998/MJ1/MatJoin4/23 l 1st stage deformation forming interfacial boundary. l 2nd stage Grain boundary migration and pore elimination. l 3rd stage Volume diffusion and pore elimination. asperities come into contact. 2nd stage grain boundary migration and pore elimination 1st stage deformation and interfacial boundary formation 3rd stage volume diffusion pore elimination Diffusion Welding Working Principles

24 Non-Arc Welding Processes 1998/1998/MJ1/MatJoin4/24

25 Non-Arc Welding Processes 1998/1998/MJ1/MatJoin4/25

26 Non-Arc Welding Processes 1998/1998/MJ1/MatJoin4/26

27 Non-Arc Welding Processes 1998/1998/MJ1/MatJoin4/27 AWS Welding Handbook

28 Non-Arc Welding Processes 1998/1998/MJ1/MatJoin4/28 Ultrasonic Welding l Advantages Fast Can spot or seam weld l Limitations Equipment complex, many variables Only use on small parts More on this below for plastics

29 Non-Arc Welding Processes 1998/1998/MJ1/MatJoin4/29 l Welding arrangement consists of three components - Base component Prime component Explosive. l Base component remains stationary, supported by anvil. prime component Base component Explosive Component arrangement for explosion welding Detonator Principles of Explosion Welding

30 Non-Arc Welding Processes 1998/1998/MJ1/MatJoin4/30 l Prime component is placed either parallel or at an angle to the base. l Explosive is distributed over top surface of prime component. l Upon detonation, prime component collides with base component to complete welding. Action between components during explosion welding. Detonation Prime component Jet Base component Weld Principles of Explosion Welding

31 Non-Arc Welding Processes 1998/1998/MJ1/MatJoin4/31 Linnert, Welding Metallurgy, AWS, 1994

32 Non-Arc Welding Processes 1998/1998/MJ1/MatJoin4/32 Turn to the person sitting next to you and discuss (1 min.): In friction welding, the outer part of the bar is moving faster and will therefore have more heating than the exact center of the bar. What might you do to “even out” the heating across the entire interface?

33 Non-Arc Welding Processes 1998/1998/MJ1/MatJoin4/33 Do Special Project Homework on Solid State Welding


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