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Composite Materials. Resistance Welding Lesson Objectives When you finish this lesson you will understand: Learning Activities 1.View Slides; 2.Read Notes,

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Presentation on theme: "Composite Materials. Resistance Welding Lesson Objectives When you finish this lesson you will understand: Learning Activities 1.View Slides; 2.Read Notes,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Composite Materials

2 Resistance Welding Lesson Objectives When you finish this lesson you will understand: Learning Activities 1.View Slides; 2.Read Notes, 3.Listen to lecture 4.Do on-line workbook Keywords

3 Matrix Materials Magnesium Lowest density (37% lighter than aluminum) Aerospace applications Creeps at low temp Relatively low strength Prone to variety of corrosion problems Aluminum Easy to process, inexpensive Density only 35% of Steel Can be alloyed to fairly high strengths 57% stiffer than Magnesium Excellent corrosion resistance Most widely used material

4 Matrix Materials Titanium Twice as strong as aerospace aluminum 65% heavier than aluminum, but 65% stiffer Temp & corrosion resistant = use in demanding environments Copper, Iron, Nickel, Tungsten Special use alloys Electronic Circuits Metal forming dies Jet engines Military applications

5 Reinforcements Ceramics Silicon Carbide (SiC) Aluminum Oxide (Al 2 O 3 ) Titanium Carbide (TiC) Boron Carbide (B 4 C) Other Graphite (C) Titanium Diboride (TiB 2 ) Metal Filaments Boron Steel Tungsten Choice of matrix and reinforcement depends on: Desired properties of composite Compatibility between matrix and reinforcement MMC Processing route

6 Rule of Mixtures

7 Designation for MMC Matrix + Reinforcement / Volume % Form Matrix = metal or alloy designation of matrix Reinforcement = chemical formula of reinforcement Volume % = Volume percent without the % sign Form = Form of the reinforcement f, fiber or filament c, chopped fiber w, whisker p, particulate Example: SiC/20w

8 Welding Handbook, AWS

9 Particulate Composite Short-Fiber Composite Long-Fiber Composite Laminated Composite Manufacturing Processes Welding Handbook, AWS

10 Processing Methods Solid State Semi-solid Liquid

11 Solid State Processing Bonding of continuous fibers between metal foils to make panels Aerospace Applications Ti/Sic; Al/B Laminated Composite Powder Metallurgy Mix particles of matrix with reinforcement Vacuum hot press (near solidus) Extrude or roll Al/B 4 C; Al/SiC

12 Semi-Solid Processing Spray Deposition Chilled Plate MMC Build Up Flame Spray Matrix Flame Spray Reinforcement ……….. Rheocasting Mix reinforcement into matrix held between solidus and liquidus x

13 Liquid Processing Infiltration Interfacial reactions can be a problem

14 Applications - From Ukraine Krivov, Optimization of design-production…, Welding in the World, Nov-Dec 1994

15 Applications Krivov, Optimization of design-production…, Welding in the World, Nov-Dec 1994

16 Krivov, Optimization of design-production…, Welding in the World, Nov-Dec 1994

17 Welding Handbook, AWS

18 Detrimental Weld Pool Chemical Reactions [l] indicates liquid phase [s] indicates solid phase [Al l ] indicates in solution with liquid aluminum

19 Resistance Welding Arc Welding Time-Temp Effect of Chem Reaction Welding Handbook, AWS

20 Capacitor Discharge Stud Welding Solid State Fusion Weld Brazing

21 Capacitor Discharge Stud Welding MMC Materials Welded 6061, 2024, 6061/SiC/40p, 6061/SiC/48f, 6061/B 4 C/30p, AZ61/B 4 C/40p Studs = 0.25 in; Sheet=0.13 in Time = 0.4 ms Solidification rate = 10 6 C/s

22 Welding Handbook, AWS Stud Welding

23 Welding Handbook, AWS

24

25 Capacitor Discharge - Solid State Welding Ti-6Al-4V/SiC Sheets Ti-6Al-4V/SCS-6 Diffusion (solid state) Bond No Melting Failure Occurred Upon Loading Remote from Weld Interface Baeslack & Froes, Joining Similar & Dissimilar……, JOM March 1995 SCS-6 is a complex fiber with SiC vapor deposited onto a graphite carbon core

26 Increase in Welding Current (Voltage) Causes Change From Solid State to Fusion Weld Cox et al, Capacitor Discharge RSW of SiC Fiber… Welding Journal, Oct 1993

27 Capacitor Discharge Solid State Weld No liquid - Weld Strength 80% of Monolithic SCS-6 Fiber Cox et al, Capacitor Discharge RSW of SiC Fiber… Welding Journal, Oct 1993

28 Solid State Weld with no Fiber degradation Cox et al, Capacitor Discharge RSW of SiC Fiber… Welding Journal, Oct 1993

29 Capacitor Discharge - Fusion Welding

30 Partial Melting Fusion Weld Cox et al, Capacitor Discharge RSW of SiC Fiber… Welding Journal, Oct 1993

31 Solidified Liquid around fiber, Property degradation Cox et al, Capacitor Discharge RSW of SiC Fiber… Welding Journal, Oct 1993

32 Al-7Zn/C BAlSi-4 Brazing Foil Low force = expulsion > 400 lb = fiber packing at weld center (see next slide) Spot Brazing Continuous C Fiber MMC

33 Welding Handbook, AWS Brazing

34 Spot Brazing Continuous SiC Fiber MMC Ti-22Al-23Nb/SiC Ti-Cu-Ni Braze Foil Baeslack & Froes, Joining Similar & Dissimilar……, JOM March 1995

35 Baeslack & Froes, Joining Similar & Dissimilar……, JOM March 1995

36 Resistance Welding Arc Welding Time-Temp Effect of Chem Reaction Welding Handbook, AWS

37 Resistance Spot Welding Solid State With Melting/Solidification

38 Spot Welding Welding Handbook, AWS

39 Adjusting Welding Force Welding Time To Avoid Fiber Crushing in Al/B MMC Welding Handbook, AWS (Continuous Fiber)

40 Aluminum/Boron Continuous Fiber Hersh, Resistance Spot Weld MMC, Welding Journal, June 1970

41 Aluminum/Boron Continuous Fiber Hersh, Resistance Spot Weld MMC, Welding Journal, June 1970

42 Aluminum/Boron Continuous Fiber Hersh, Resistance Spot Weld MMC, Welding Journal, June 1970

43 Aluminum/Boron Continuous Fiber Hersh, Resistance Spot Weld MMC, Welding Journal, June 1970

44 Aluminum/Boron Continuous Fiber Hersh, Resistance Spot Weld MMC, Welding Journal, June 1970

45 Spot Welding Discontinuous Fibers Segregation of reinforcement (see next slide)

46 Welding Handbook, AWS


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