1 ME 330 Manufacturing Processes WELDING PROCESSES (cont)
2 Solid State Welding (SSW) Fusion Welding (FW)Solid State Welding (SSW)Arc Welding (AW)Resistance Welding (RW)Oxyfuel Welding (OFW)
3 Principle of the process Structure and configurationProcess modelingDefectsDesign For Manufacturing (DFM)Process variation
4 Resistance Welding: Principle of welding Heat generation-+Parts to be welded (usually sheet metal)Two opposing electrodesMeans of applying pressure to squeeze parts between electrodesPower supply from which a controlled current can be applied for a specified time duration
5 Principle of the process Structure and configurationProcess modelingDefectsDesign For Manufacturing (DFM)Process variation
6 Resistance Spot Welding Resistance spot welding is the main process in the RW groupUsed to join sheet metal partsWidely used in mass production of automobiles, metal furniture, appliancesParts to be welded (usually sheet metal)Two opposing electrodesMeans of applying pressure to squeeze parts between electrodesPower supply from which a controlled current can be applied for a specified time duration
7 Air‑tight joints Resistance Seam Welding (RSEW) Gasoline tanks Uses rotating wheel electrodes to produce a series of overlapping spot welds along lap jointApplications:Gasoline tanksAutomobile mufflersVarious sheet metal containers
8 Advantages and Drawbacks of RW No filler metal required.High production rates possible.Lends itself to mechanization and automation.Lower operator skill level than for arc welding.Good repeatability and reliability.Disadvantages:High initial equipment cost.Limited to lap joints for most RW processes.
9 Solid State Welding (SSW) Fusion Welding (FW)Solid State Welding (SSW)Arc Welding (AW)Resistance Welding (RW)Oxyfuel Welding (OFW)Other FW processes
10 Other Fusion Welding Processes Use unique technologies to develop heat for melting. Processes include:Laser beam weldingElectron beam weldingElectroslag weldingThermite welding
11 Laser Beam Welding (LBW) Fusion welding process in which coalescence is achieved by energy of a highly concentrated, laser beam focused on joint.LBW normally performed with shielding gases to prevent oxidation.Filler metal not usually added.High power density in small area.LBW often used for small parts.Show video
12 Solid State Welding (SSW) Fusion Welding (FW)Solid State Welding (SSW)Arc Welding (AW)Resistance Welding (RW)Oxyfuel Welding (OFW)Other FW processes
13 Solid State Welding (SSW) Coalescence of part surfaces is achieved byPressure alone, or Heat and pressure.If both heat and pressure are used, heat is not enough to work surfaces.For some SSW processes, time is also a factor.No filler metal is added
14 SSW Advantages over FW Processes If no melting, then , so metal around joint retains original properties.Many SSW processes produce welded joints that bond the entire contact interface between two parts rather than at distinct spots or seams.Some SSW processes can be used to bond metals, without concerns about relative melting points, thermal expansions, and other problems that arise in FW.
15 SSW: Diffusion Welding (DFW) Coalescence is by solid state fusion between two surfaces held together under pressure at elevated temperatureTemperatures 0.5 Tm.Plastic deformation at surfaces is minimal.Primary coalescence mechanism is solid state diffusion.Limitation: time required for diffusion can range from seconds to hours.See video
16 SSW: DFW ApplicationsJoining of high‑strength and refractory metals in aerospace and nuclear industries.Used to join either similar and dissimilar metals.For joining dissimilar metals, a filler layer of different metal is often sandwiched between base metals to promote diffusion.
18 SSW: Friction Welding (FRW) No melting occurs at weld surfaces.No filler metal, flux, or shielding gases normally used.Used to join dissimilar metals.
19 Application and Limitation of Friction Welding Applications:Shafts and tubular parts, such as pipes.Suitable for automation and mass production.Limitations:At least one of the parts must be rotational.Flash must usually be removed (extra operation).Upsetting reduces the part lengths (which must be taken into consideration in product design).
20 SSW: Ultrasonic Welding Coalescence is by ultrasonic oscillating motion in a direction parallel to contacting surfaces of two parts held together under pressureGeneral setup for a lap jointClose‑up of weld area- Sonotrode (or aka horn) cause resonance at the desired ultrasonic frequency to help with the vibratory motion
21 SSW: Ultrasonic Welding (USW) Oscillatory motion breaks down any surface films to allow strong metallurgical bonding between surfaces.Temperatures are well below melting point.No filler metals, fluxes, or shielding gases.Generally limited to lap (overlapping) joints on soft materials.
22 USW ApplicationsWire terminations and splicing in electrical and electronics industry. Eliminates need for soldering.Assembly of aluminum sheet metal panels.Commonly used in plastics welding. Packaging and fabrics
23 SummaryThere are two principles for welding: fusion and solid state. The difference lies in whether the interface material melts.For any welding process which involves high temperature, there is an issue of oxidation. To over oxidation, there is a need of shielding.When there is a melting process occurs, slug occurs. There is a problem called flux.
24 Welding Fusion Welding (FW) Solid State Welding (SSW) FrictionSolid state fusion (Diffusion)Ultrasonic