Presentation on theme: "Do-Now: What was “reborn” during the Renaissance?"— Presentation transcript:
1Do-Now: What was “reborn” during the Renaissance? Unit 12: The RenaissanceDo-Now: What was “reborn” during the Renaissance?
2The Renaissance marked the beginning of the “modern era” Western Europe emerged from the Middle Ages during an era known as the RenaissanceFrom 1300 to 1600, Western Europe experienced a “rebirth” in trade, learning, & Greco-Roman ideasDuring the Renaissance, Europeans developed new ideas in art, gov’t, & human potentialThe Renaissance marked the beginning of the “modern era”
3What changed during the Middle Ages that gave rise to the Renaissance? Trade & Cities?Trade & Cities? Government? Religion? Human Potential?
6Italian merchants began meeting the demand for trade in Europe The Crusades increased European demand for luxury goods from China, India, and Middle EastItalian merchants began meeting the demand for trade in Europe
7As a result, Italian city-states & a wealthy middle class began to form in Italy The most dominant Italian city was Florence, where wealth from trade sparked the RenaissanceA new middle class of bankers, merchants, & skilled craftsmen gained lots of powerThe Medici family were wealthy bankers who used their wealth to turn Florence into Italy’s most artistic city
8What changed during the Middle Ages that gave rise to the Renaissance? Trade & Cities? Government? Religion? Human Potential?Government?
11Kings were able to tax merchants & use their wealth to build armies & strong nations which hurt the power of the feudal lordsFrom 1337 to 1453, England & France began a conflict called the Hundred Years WarDuring the war, nationalism increased as people became loyal to their king & nation, rather than their lordThe 100 Years War led to: to 1453.
12What changed during the Middle Ages that gave rise to the Renaissance? Trade & Cities? Government? Religion? Human Potential?Religion?
15In the late Middle Ages, the Pope & the Catholic Church lost some of its influence as a result of the losses to Muslim armies during the CrusadesDespite having less influence, the Catholic Church was still an important part of peoples’ lives & the pope remained important
16What changed during the Middle Ages that gave rise to the Renaissance? Trade & Cities? Government? Religion? Human Potential?Human Potential?
17What were common people expected to do during the Middle Ages?
18What was expected of people during the Renaissance?
19During the Middle Ages, peasants did not own land & had no options other than remaining loyal to a feudal lord & work within the manorial system
20The rise of trade during the Renaissance gave people options to leave the manor & move to cities to serve as merchants or skilled artisans
21During the Renaissance, people had more options than ever before which led to a belief that people can accomplish anything
22Individuals became the center of attention during the Renaissance Social status was based on wealth & ability, not birthrightA new way of thinking began during the Renaissance called HumanismHumanism stressed the individual and the potential of individual will and geniusHumanists studied the “classical” ideas of Greece & Rome & believed that education could make the world a better place
23Francesco Petrarch (1304-1374)— The “Father of Humanism” Considered the first modern writer. In his writings, literature was no longer subordinate to religion.Secular focus – a concern with materialism rather than religion.Claimed that the Middle Ages (the period between the fall of the Roman Empire and the emergence of the Renaissance) were the “Dark Ages”He was perhaps the first to use critical textual analysis to ancient texts. Especially influenced by Cicero.Wrote his famous poetry in the Italian vernacular (asdid Dante earlier in his Divine Comedy).
24Giovanni Boccaccio (1313-1375) Compiled an encyclopedia of Greek and Roman mythologyDecameron is his most famous workConsisted of 100 worldly tales that comprise a social commentary of 14th century ItalyAimed to impart wisdom of human character and behavior (especially sexual and economic misbehavior).
25Baldassare Castiglione (1478-1529) – The Book of the Courtier (1528) Perhaps most important work on Renaissance EducationSpecified qualities necessary to be a true gentlemanincluding physical and intellectual abilities and leading an active lifeRejected crude contemporary social habits (e.g. spitting on the floor, eating without utensils, wiping one’s nose with one’s sleeve, etc.)
26Niccolò Machiavelli (1469-1527) - The Prince (1513) Observed the political leadership of Cesare Borgiawho had ambitions of uniting Italy under his controlStated that politically, “the end justifies the means”Stated that for rulers, “it was better to be feared than to be loved”Rulers had to be practical and cunning, in addition to being aggressive and ruthlessAt times rulers should behave like a lion (aggressive and powerful) and at other times like a fox (cunning and practical)
27“Renaissance Man” & “Renaissance Women” The “ideal man” was well educated, smart, can dance, write poetry, & play music; (called a “Renaissance Man”)Virtú – civic duty to use wealth to beautify surroundings and city-stateThe “ideal woman” should have the same qualities as men but should not seek fame or political power (Renaissance women were better educated but had fewer rights than medieval women. Use knowledge to run household)
28Closure Activity: Visual Metaphor On your notes, complete the visual metaphor184.108.40.206.1.3.2.
30Art showed peoples’ new social & political status The revival of trade in Europe helped bring an end to the Middle Ages & gave rise to the RenaissanceThe rise of cities brought artists together which led to new techniques & styles of artArt showed peoples’ new social & political statusThe rise of cities brought artists together & shared ideas—this led to new techniques & stylesIncreased trade gave rise to Italian city-states & a wealthy middle class of bankers & merchantsWealthy bankers & merchants wanted to show off their new status by commissioning art
31Art showed peoples’ new social & political status The most important Italian city-state was Florence; In this wealthy trade city, the Renaissance beganArt showed peoples’ new social & political statusThe rise of cities brought artists together & shared ideas—this led to new techniques & stylesFlorence was home to the Medici family, the wealthiest & most powerful bankers in EuropeThe Medici used their wealth to commission art for themselves & to beautify Florence
32Florence under the Medici LorenzoGuilianoCosimoThis painting by Botticelli was commissioned by Lorenzo de Medici & depicts Cosimo, Lorenzo, & Guiliano de Medici as the three magiThe Medici paid to build a massive domed cathedral for Florence engineered by Filippo BrunelleschiMedici ChapelLorenzo de Medici commissioned this painting from Botticelli of the Medici brothers as the three magiThe Medici Palace
33New styles & techniques of Renaissance art Realism & emotionClassicism: inspiration from Greece & RomeEmphasis on individuals & interaction between peopleGeometric arrangementsPerspective – della Francesca, MassaccioUsing light & shadowsSfumatoThe first nude paintings & sculptures since the RomansChiaroscuroSfumato is a term used by Leonardo da Vinci to refer to a painting technique which overlays translucent layers of colour to create perceptions of depth, volume and form. In particular, it refers to the blending of colours or tones so subtly that there is no perceptible transition.An element in art, chiaroscuro (Italian for lightdark) is defined as a bold contrast between light and darkGreekRenaissance
35Donatello Donatello was the 1st great sculptor of the Renaissance Donatello revived the classical (Greco-Roman) style of sculpture that were realistic & could be viewed from all sidesDonatello’s “David” was the 1st large, free-standing human sculpture of the Renaissance
36MichelangeloMichelangelo was one of the most famous Renaissance artists:He was a painter, sculptor, architect, & poetHis sculptures & paintings showed realism, detail of the human body, & expression to show personality & emotionIn addition, artists such as the sculptor, poet, architect, and painter Michelangelo (MY•kuhl•AN•juh•LOH) Buonarroti used a realistic style when depicting the human body. Donatello (DAHN•uh•TEHL•oh) also made sculpture more realistic by carving natural postures and expressions that reveal personality. He revived a classical form in his statue of David, a boy who, according to the Bible, became a great king.
37Michelangelo sculptures “Pieta”& “David” are considered masterpieces
38Michelangelo’s greatest work is the 130 ft x 44 ft ceiling of the Sistine Chapel which shows Biblical images of amazing detail, power, & beauty
40Leonardo da Vinci Leonardo da Vinci was a true “Renaissance Man” He was a painter & sculptor whose art was known for incredible realism & emotionHe was also an inventor & scientist whose sketches reveal observations about human anatomy & new engineering technologyLeonardo, Renaissance Man Leonardo da Vinci (LAY•uh•NAHR•doh duh•VIHN•chee) was a painter, sculptor, inventor, and scientist. A true “Renaissance man,” he was interested in how things worked. He studied how a muscle moves and how veins are arranged in a leaf. He filled his notebooks with observations and sketches. Then he incorporated his findings in his art. Among his many masterpieces, Leonardo painted one of the best-known portraits in the world, the Mona Lisa (page 478). The woman in the portrait seems so real that many writers have tried to explain the thoughts behind her smile. Leonardo also produced a famous religious painting, The Last Supper. It shows the personalities of Jesus’ disciples through facial expressions.
41His “Last Supper” shows Jesus’ last meeting with the 12 apostles before the crucifixion; the facial expressions, detail, emotion made it a masterpiece
42Leonardo da Vinci’s greatest masterpiece was the “Mona Lisa” which was known for its emotion & depth
45Raphael Raphael “perfected” Renaissance painting He improved perspective and realism by studying Leonardo & MichelangeloRaphael became the favorite painter of the Pope because of his amazing detailed paintings showing a combination of famous Greeks & Romans along with Renaissance peopleRaphael Advances Realism Raphael (RAHF•ee•uhl) Sanzio was younger than Michelangelo and Leonardo. He learned from studying their works. One of Raphael’s favorite subjects was the Madonna and child. Raphael often portrayed their expressions as gentle and calm. He was famous for his use of Perspective. In his greatest achievement, Raphael filled the walls of Pope Julius II’s library with paintings. One of these, School of Athens (page 479), conveys the classical influence on the Renaissance. Raphael painted famous Renaissance figures, such as Michelangelo, Leonardo, and himself, as classical philosophers and their students.
46Raphael’s greatest painting was “School of Athens” which blended Classical figures from Greece & Rome with important people from the RenaissancePlato (drawn tolook like Da Vinci)AristotleRaphaelPythagorasMichelangeloEuclid
49Filippo Brunelleschi Brunelleschi was Florence’s greatest architect: He studied the Roman Pantheon when he built the Cuppolo of Maria del Fiore cathedral in FlorenceThe dome inspired modern building designs
50US Capital, Washington, D.C. Dome ComparisonsUS capitalUS Capital, Washington, D.C.St. Peter’s, RomeIl Duomo, FlorenceSt. Paul’s, London
51Effects of the Renaissance on Society Status of Artists increasesCreative genius recognized and rewarded.Mostly an elitist cultureLittle direct effect on middle classes and the working class.
52Social History – Effects on everyday average people Printing Press – revolution in knowledge/literacy increases/propaganda usesClocks – people learn to quantify time/time keeping and clocks are important for scheduling/controlling urban lifeWomen – Upper class women lose status during RenaissanceChristine de Pisan – City of LadiesRape of women by upper-class men common and not considered a serious crimeHomosexuality widespread – important in shaping masculine gender identityAdult male with adolescent under 18.Society did not see this as unmasculine because for a lot of men marriage and women were not available.Male bonding.Slavery of Africans in Renaissance society.Biblical interpretation – Black – dark – evil- White – light – good- Blacks also a status symbol/amusement/actors/musicians
53As these ideas spread, this “Northern Renaissance” developed its own characteristics The Renaissance spread from Italy as scholars & merchants from other areas visited Italian city-states
54Christian Humanists – create a more perfect world by combining the best of the Classical world with Christian cultureThe Renaissance in France was most known for its unique architecture/art – more religious/less influenced by classics
55The Renaissance in England was most known for literature, especially the plays of William ShakespeareKnown as the Elizabethan Age ( ) – Queen Elizabeth I patronized artists and writers.
56The Renaissance in the Netherlands was most known for realism in art using oil paints Peter Paul Reubens – best known for Baroque style which emphasized color, movement, and sensualityPeasant Wedding by Pieter Bruegel – Ordinary Everyday ScenesSelf Portrait by Albrecht Durer– German “Leonardo”Wedding Portrait by Jan Van Eyck – Human Personality
57Thomas More ( )Prime example of a civic humanist; he rose to the highest government position of any humanistLord Chancellor to King Henry VIII in EnglandUtopia (1516): More’s humanistic masterpieceMixes civic humanism with religious ideals to describe a perfect (utopian) society located on an imaginary islandMore sees the accumulation of property as a root cause for society’s ills; a few have it—most don’tIn order to achieve harmony and order people have to be willing to sacrifice their individual rights for the common good. (Socialistic Society)War, poverty, religious intolerance, and other problems of the early 16th century do not exist.
58Desiderius Erasmus (1466-1536) Most famous and celebrated of all northern humanists (Dutch Monk)Master of the Greek language; one of Europe’s foremost authoritiesMade new translations of the Greek and Latin versions of the New Testament to create ‘purer’ editions.He was the first humanist to earn a living by writing— an extremely impressive achievement.The Praise of Folly (1513)Best-seller (only the Bible sold more by 1550)Written in Latin; thus is was not intended for mass consumptionErasmus was a devout Catholic who sought to reform the Church, not destroy it.Satirized people’s worldly ambitions, including the clergy.Criticized immorality and hypocrisy of Church leaders and the clergyThe book inspired renewed calls for reform, and influenced Martin Luther. (Reformation Leader)
59François Rabelais (1494-1553) – French Humanist His secular writings portrayed his confidence in human nature and reflected Renaissance tastesGargantua and Pantagruel ( )A folk epic and comic masterpiece that satirized French societyAttacked clerical education and monastic orders; championed secular learningBelieved that human beings were basically good.
60Renaissance PoliticsKings and Politicians used Machiavellian Principles to get and stay in powerFranceEnglandSpain
61France Charles VI Increased importance to middle class men Taxes on salt and land – improve royal treasury.Remodels armyPragmatic sanction of Bourges – 1438Louis XI – “The Spider King” – True Renaissance Prince$$$ as the answer – new industries/commerceImprove the armyExpanded royal authorityFoundation for French royal absolutism – remodeled gov’tFrancis I – Concordat of Bologna
62England War of Roses – 1455-1471 – upper class civil war Yorks vs. LancastersEdward IV, Richard III, Henry VII (Tudor) – reduce power of noblesParliament controls $$$ - therefore avoided expensive warsRoyal Council/Star Chamber (Henry VIII)No standing army – justices of peace to maintain order
63SpainReconquistaFerdinand I and Isabella – 1469 – Married and united territories – Aragon and CastilleUnited in defense but separate in local issuesHermandades – brotherhoods – local policeRoyal CouncilNational ChurchMarranos – Spanish JewsMoriscos – Spanish Muslims1492 – Expel all practicing Jews and Muslims
64Guess if the following pieces of art (A-J) are: Renaissance or Medieval