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Unit 12: The Renaissance Do-Now: What was “reborn” during the Renaissance?

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1 Unit 12: The Renaissance Do-Now: What was “reborn” during the Renaissance?

2 The Renaissance Western Europe emerged from the Middle Ages during an era known as the Renaissance From 1300 to 1600, Western Europe experienced a “rebirth” in trade, learning, & Greco-Roman ideas During the Renaissance, Europeans developed new ideas in art, gov’t, & human potential The Renaissance marked the beginning of the “modern era”

3 What changed during the Middle Ages that gave rise to the Renaissance? Trade & Cities? Government? Religion? Human Potential? Trade & Cities?

4 What was trade like during the Middle Ages?

5 What were things like in the Renaissance?

6 The Crusades increased European demand for luxury goods from China, India, and Middle East Italian merchants began meeting the demand for trade in Europe

7 As a result, Italian city- states & a wealthy middle class began to form in Italy The most dominant Italian city was Florence, where wealth from trade sparked the Renaissance A new middle class of bankers, merchants, & skilled craftsmen gained lots of power The Medici family were wealthy bankers who used their wealth to turn Florence into Italy’s most artistic city

8 What changed during the Middle Ages that gave rise to the Renaissance? Trade & Cities? Government? Religion? Human Potential? Government?

9 What was government like in the Middle Ages?

10 What was government like in the Renaissance?

11 Kings were able to tax merchants & use their wealth to build armies & strong nations which hurt the power of the feudal lords From 1337 to 1453, England & France began a conflict called the Hundred Years War During the war, nationalism increased as people became loyal to their king & nation, rather than their lord

12 What changed during the Middle Ages that gave rise to the Renaissance? Trade & Cities? Government? Religion? Human Potential? Religion?

13 What was religion like in the Middle Ages?

14 What was religion like during the Renaissance?

15 In the late Middle Ages, the Pope & the Catholic Church lost some of its influence as a result of the losses to Muslim armies during the Crusades Despite having less influence, the Catholic Church was still an important part of peoples’ lives & the pope remained important

16 What changed during the Middle Ages that gave rise to the Renaissance? Trade & Cities? Government? Religion? Human Potential?

17 What were common people expected to do during the Middle Ages?

18 What was expected of people during the Renaissance?

19 During the Middle Ages, peasants did not own land & had no options other than remaining loyal to a feudal lord & work within the manorial system

20 The rise of trade during the Renaissance gave people options to leave the manor & move to cities to serve as merchants or skilled artisans

21 During the Renaissance, people had more options than ever before which led to a belief that people can accomplish anything

22 Individuals became the center of attention during the Renaissance Social status was based on wealth & ability, not birthright A new way of thinking began during the Renaissance called Humanism Humanists studied the “classical” ideas of Greece & Rome & believed that education could make the world a better place Humanism stressed the individual and the potential of individual will and genius

23 Francesco Petrarch ( )— The “Father of Humanism” Considered the first modern writer. In his writings, literature was no longer subordinate to religion. Secular focus – a concern with materialism rather than religion. Claimed that the Middle Ages (the period between the fall of the Roman Empire and the emergence of the Renaissance) were the “Dark Ages” He was perhaps the first to use critical textual analysis to ancient texts. Especially influenced by Cicero. Wrote his famous poetry in the Italian vernacular (as did Dante earlier in his Divine Comedy).

24 Giovanni Boccaccio ( ) Compiled an encyclopedia of Greek and Roman mythology Decameron is his most famous work Consisted of 100 worldly tales that comprise a social commentary of 14th century Italy Aimed to impart wisdom of human character and behavior (especially sexual and economic misbehavior).

25 Baldassare Castiglione ( ) – The Book of the Courtier (1528) Perhaps most important work on Renaissance Education Specified qualities necessary to be a true gentleman including physical and intellectual abilities and leading an active life Rejected crude contemporary social habits (e.g. spitting on the floor, eating without utensils, wiping one’s nose with one’s sleeve, etc.)

26 Niccolò Machiavelli ( ) - The Prince (1513) Observed the political leadership of Cesare Borgia who had ambitions of uniting Italy under his control Stated that politically, “the end justifies the means” Stated that for rulers, “it was better to be feared than to be loved” Rulers had to be practical and cunning, in addition to being aggressive and ruthless At times rulers should behave like a lion (aggressive and powerful) and at other times like a fox (cunning and practical)

27 “Renaissance Man” & “Renaissance Women” The “ideal man” was well educated, smart, can dance, write poetry, & play music; (called a “Renaissance Man”) Virtú – civic duty to use wealth to beautify surroundings and city-state The “ideal woman” should have the same qualities as men but should not seek fame or political power (Renaissance women were better educated but had fewer rights than medieval women. Use knowledge to run household)

28 Closure Activity: Visual Metaphor ■ On your notes, complete the visual metaphor

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30 The revival of trade in Europe helped bring an end to the Middle Ages & gave rise to the Renaissance Increased trade gave rise to Italian city-states & a wealthy middle class of bankers & merchants Wealthy bankers & merchants wanted to show off their new status by commissioning art The rise of cities brought artists together which led to new techniques & styles of art

31 The most important Italian city-state was Florence; In this wealthy trade city, the Renaissance began Florence was home to the Medici family, the wealthiest & most powerful bankers in Europe The Medici used their wealth to commission art for themselves & to beautify Florence

32 Florence under the Medici Medici Chapel The Medici Palace Cosimo Lorenzo Guiliano Lorenzo de Medici commissioned this painting from Botticelli of the Medici brothers as the three magi The Medici paid to build a massive domed cathedral for Florence engineered by Filippo BrunelleschiFilippo Brunelleschi

33 ■ Realism & emotion ■ Classicism: inspiration from Greece & Rome ■ Emphasis on individuals & interaction between people ■ Geometric arrangements ■ Perspective – della Francesca, Massaccio ■ Using light & shadows New styles & techniques of Renaissance art Chiaroscuro Sfumato The first nude paintings & sculptures since the Romans GreekRenaissance

34 Renaissance Artists

35 Donatello ■ Donatello was the 1 st great sculptor of the Renaissance – Donatello revived the classical (Greco-Roman) style of sculpture that were realistic & could be viewed from all sides – Donatello’s “David” was the 1 st large, free-standing human sculpture of the Renaissance

36 Michelangelo ■ Michelangelo was one of the most famous Renaissance artists: – He was a painter, sculptor, architect, & poet – His sculptures & paintings showed realism, detail of the human body, & expression to show personality & emotion

37 Michelangelo sculptures “Pieta”& “David” are considered masterpieces

38 Michelangelo’s greatest work is the 130 ft x 44 ft ceiling of the Sistine Chapel which shows Biblical images of amazing detail, power, & beauty

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40 Leonardo da Vinci ■ Leonardo da Vinci was a true “Renaissance Man” – He was a painter & sculptor whose art was known for incredible realism & emotion – He was also an inventor & scientist whose sketches reveal observations about human anatomy & new engineering technology

41 His “Last Supper” shows Jesus’ last meeting with the 12 apostles before the crucifixion; the facial expressions, detail, emotion made it a masterpiece

42 Leonardo da Vinci’s greatest masterpiece was the “Mona Lisa” which was known for its emotion & depth

43 Leonardo’s Inventions

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45 Raphael ■ Raphael “perfected” Renaissance painting – He improved perspective and realism by studying Leonardo & Michelangelo – Raphael became the favorite painter of the Pope because of his amazing detailed paintings showing a combination of famous Greeks & Romans along with Renaissance people

46 Raphael Michelangelo Plato (drawn to look like Da Vinci) Aristotle Pythagoras Euclid Raphael’s greatest painting was “School of Athens” which blended Classical figures from Greece & Rome with important people from the Renaissance

47 Raphael’s “Betrothal of the Virgin”

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49 Filippo Brunelleschi ■ Brunelleschi was Florence’s greatest architect: – He studied the Roman Pantheon when he built the Cuppolo of Maria del Fiore cathedral in Florence – The dome inspired modern building designs

50 Dome Comparisons Il Duomo, Florence St. Peter’s, Rome St. Paul’s, London US Capital, Washington, D.C.

51 Effects of the Renaissance on Society ■ Status of Artists increases – Creative genius recognized and rewarded. – Mostly an elitist culture ■ Little direct effect on middle classes and the working class.

52 Social History – Effects on everyday average people ■ Printing Press – revolution in knowledge/literacy increases/propaganda uses ■ Clocks – people learn to quantify time/time keeping and clocks are important for scheduling/controlling urban life ■ Women – Upper class women lose status during Renaissance – Christine de Pisan – City of Ladies – Rape of women by upper-class men common and not considered a serious crime ■ Homosexuality widespread – important in shaping masculine gender identity – Adult male with adolescent under 18. – Society did not see this as unmasculine because for a lot of men marriage and women were not available. – Male bonding. ■ Slavery of Africans in Renaissance society. – Biblical interpretation – Black – dark – evil - White – light – good - Blacks also a status symbol/amusement/actors/musicians

53 The Renaissance spread from Italy as scholars & merchants from other areas visited Italian city-states As these ideas spread, this “Northern Renaissance” developed its own characteristics

54 The Renaissance in France was most known for its unique architecture/art – more religious/less influenced by classics Christian Humanists – create a more perfect world by combining the best of the Classical world with Christian culture

55 The Renaissance in England was most known for literature, especially the plays of William Shakespeare Known as the Elizabethan Age ( ) – Queen Elizabeth I patronized artists and writers.

56 Wedding Portrait by Jan Van Eyck – Human Personality The Renaissance in the Netherlands was most known for realism in art using oil paints Peasant Wedding by Pieter Bruegel – Ordinary Everyday Scenes Peter Paul Reubens – best known for Baroque style which emphasized color, movement, and sensuality Self Portrait by Albrecht Durer– German “Leonardo”

57 Thomas More ( ) Prime example of a civic humanist; he rose to the highest government position of any humanist Lord Chancellor to King Henry VIII in England Utopia (1516): More’s humanistic masterpiece Mixes civic humanism with religious ideals to describe a perfect (utopian) society located on an imaginary island More sees the accumulation of property as a root cause for society’s ills; a few have it—most don’t In order to achieve harmony and order people have to be willing to sacrifice their individual rights for the common good. (Socialistic Society) War, poverty, religious intolerance, and other problems of the early 16th century do not exist.

58 Desiderius Erasmus ( ) Most famous and celebrated of all northern humanists (Dutch Monk) Master of the Greek language; one of Europe’s foremost authorities Made new translations of the Greek and Latin versions of the New Testament to create ‘purer’ editions. He was the first humanist to earn a living by writing— an extremely impressive achievement. The Praise of Folly (1513) Best-seller (only the Bible sold more by 1550) Written in Latin; thus is was not intended for mass consumption Erasmus was a devout Catholic who sought to reform the Church, not destroy it. Satirized people’s worldly ambitions, including the clergy. Criticized immorality and hypocrisy of Church leaders and the clergy The book inspired renewed calls for reform, and influenced Martin Luther. (Reformation Leader)

59 François Rabelais ( ) – French Humanist His secular writings portrayed his confidence in human nature and reflected Renaissance tastes Gargantua and Pantagruel ( ) A folk epic and comic masterpiece that satirized French society Attacked clerical education and monastic orders; championed secular learning Believed that human beings were basically good.

60 Renaissance Politics ■ Kings and Politicians used Machiavellian Principles to get and stay in power – France – England – Spain

61 France ■ Charles VI – Increased importance to middle class men – Taxes on salt and land – improve royal treasury. – Remodels army – Pragmatic sanction of Bourges – 1438 ■ Louis XI – “The Spider King” – True Renaissance Prince – $$$ as the answer – new industries/commerce – Improve the army – Expanded royal authority – Foundation for French royal absolutism – remodeled gov’t ■ Francis I – Concordat of Bologna

62 England ■ War of Roses – – upper class civil war – Yorks vs. Lancasters ■ Edward IV, Richard III, Henry VII (Tudor) – reduce power of nobles – Parliament controls $$$ - therefore avoided expensive wars – Royal Council/Star Chamber (Henry VIII) – No standing army – justices of peace to maintain order

63 Spain ■ Reconquista ■ Ferdinand I and Isabella – 1469 – Married and united territories – Aragon and Castille – United in defense but separate in local issues – Hermandades – brotherhoods – local police – Royal Council National Church Marranos – Spanish Jews Moriscos – Spanish Muslims 1492 – Expel all practicing Jews and Muslims

64 Renaissance Medieval Guess if the following pieces of art (A-J) are: Renaissance or Medieval

65 A Renaissance (Titian)

66 B Medieval (tapestry)

67 C (Early) Renaissance (Giotto)

68 D (late) Medieval (Cimebue)

69 E (late) Medieval

70 F Renaissance (Raphael)

71 G Renaissance (Botticelli)

72 H Renaissance (Lippi)

73 I Renaissance (da Vinci)

74 J (late) Medieval (Rublev)


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