3Contrasting Medieval Art and Renaissance Art Usually religious subjectsPrimitive use of perspectiveBright colors, less contrastReligious, mythological, and historical subjectsLinear perspectiveStrong contrast between light and dark
4The RenaissanceMajor changes in Europe caused the medieval period to give way to a new period.As trade with the East increased, Europeans rediscovered the classical knowledge of ancient Greece and Rome.The knowledge led to a period of creativity and learning called the Renaissance.A new focus on the individual emerged-contributing to new ideas.
5Definition:In the early 1300s, a movement began in Italy that would become known as the Renaissance, or "rebirth." The Renaissance was characterized by a renewed interest in ancient Greece and Rome.
6Causes: The Black Death had completely shaken European society Decrease in population allowed farmers to produce more food than they needed.Food prices declined, people able to spend more money on other thingsGrowth of large, wealthy city-statesRuins of the Roman Empire still reminded Italians of Roman gloryThe Crusades brought Europeans in contact with Byzantium, whose scholars had preserved Greek and Roman learningIncreased trade with Asia and Africa brought Europeans in contact with Arab and African achievements
7Rise of City-StatesWealthy merchants in Italian cities such as Florence, Milan, Naples, Rome, and Venice became patrons of the arts. Examples include Lorenzo de Medici and Isabella d'Este.
8The Italian Renaissance: The Italian Renaissance began in the city-states of Northern ItalyIt began in the 14th century
9HumanismItalian scholars turned to Classical Greek and Roman literature to study grammar, history, and poetryThese studies are called humanities, and people who specialized in them were called humanists.Renaissance humanists searched out manuscripts written in Greek and Latin.Focus on worldly rather than spiritual-”secular”
10The Northern Renaissance: The Northern Renaissance describes the Renaissance in Northern Europe in the 15th and 16th centuryTrade, the movement of artists and scholars, and the development of printing helped spread Renaissance ideas northward.
11Printing Press - Around 1450, the German Johannes Gutenberg created moveable type - letters of the alphabet on metal plates that could be arranged on a wooden press. Chinese and Koreans used a similar process using wooden blocks centuries earlier, but Gutenberg's invention seems to have been independent of the Chinese process.The printing press was significant because books could now be made quickly and inexpensively.
12Compare/Contrast What are characteristics of the Northern Renaissance? Describe accomplishments and impact of key people:Johannes GutenbergDesiderius ErasmusSir Thomas MoreWilliam ShakespeareChristine de PisanAlbrecht DurerJan van EyckWhat are characteristics of the Italian Renaissance?Describe accomplishments and impact of key people:Baldassare CastiglioneNiccolo’ MachiavelliLorenzo de MediciLeonardo da VinciMichelangelo BuonarrotiRaphaelBramante