2I. The RenaissanceWestern Europe emerged from the Middle Ages during an era known as the RenaissanceFrom 1300 to 1600, Western Europe experienced a “rebirth” in trade, learning, & Greco-Roman ideasDuring the Renaissance, Europeans developed new ideas in art, gov’t, & human potentialThe Renaissance was a revival of learning based on knowledge from Classical Greece & Rome. This intellectual change has resulted in the Renaissance being viewed as a bridge between the Middle Ages and the Modern era.
3What changed during the Middle Ages that gave rise to the Renaissance? Trade & Cities?Trade & Cities? Government? Religion? Human Potential?
4Think…What was trade like during the Middle Ages? During the Middle Ages, trade was limited to the manor. Very little if any exchanges between manors existed. Think self-sufficient
6The Crusades increased European demand for luxury goods from Asia Italian merchants began meeting the demand for trade in Europe
7The most important Italian city was Florence, where wealth from trade sparked the Renaissance As a result, Italian cities & a wealthy middle class began to form in ItalyIn addition, the fact that Italians could look at the ruins of the Roman Empire for inspiration, it made for the perfect location for the Renaissance.A new middle class of bankers, merchants, & skilled craftsmen gained lots of powerThe Medici family were wealthy bankers who used their wealth to buy art (Patrons)
8Trade & Cities? Government? Religion? Human Potential? Think…What changed during the Middle Ages that gave rise to the Renaissance?Trade & Cities? Government? Religion? Human Potential?Government?
9Think…What was government like in the Middle Ages? During the Middle Ages, government was not centralized and therefore there was no peace and no stability
11Kings were able to tax merchants & use their wealth to build armies & strong nations which hurt the power of the feudal lordsFrom 1337 to 1453, England & France began a conflict called the Hundred Years WarDuring the war, nationalism increased as people became loyal to their king & nation, rather than their lordThe 100 Years War led to: to 1453.
12During the Hundred Years War, new military weapons decreased the power of feudal lords & knights The discovery of Chinese gunpowder led to the development of cannons which helped armies penetrate castlesThe 100 Years War led to: to 1453.
13The invention of the longbow allowed soldiers to shoot accurately up to 300 yards which decreased the importance of knights on horsebackThe 100 Years War led to: to 1453.
14Trade & Cities? Government? Religion? Human Potential? Think…What changed during the Middle Ages that gave rise to the Renaissance?Trade & Cities? Government? Religion? Human Potential?Religion?
15Think…What was religion like in the Middle Ages? The heavy reliance on religion gave way to the term “Age of Faith”During the Middle Ages, the only accepted religion in Europe was Roman Catholicism. The church was the only institution that provided stability.
17In the late Middle Ages, the Pope & the Catholic Church lost some of its influence as a result of the losses to Muslim armies during the CrusadesDespite having less influence, the Catholic Church was still an important part of peoples’ lives & the Pope remained important
18Trade & Cities? Government? Religion? Human Potential? Think…What changed during the Middle Ages that gave rise to the Renaissance?Trade & Cities? Government? Religion? Human Potential?Human Potential?
19Think…What were common people expected to do during the Middle Ages? During the Middle Ages, most people were peasants. A hard life was lived where daily duties revolved around farming the manor.
20During the Middle Ages, peasants did not own land & had no options other than remaining loyal to a feudal lord & work within the manorial system
21As peasants left the manor to seek new job opportunities, the manor systems weakened because few were left to do the work. This was a key factor behind the end to the feudal system.The rise of trade during the Renaissance gave people options to leave the manor & move to cities to serve as merchants or skilled artisans
22V. The PlagueAnother reason for the decline of the manorial system was the plague, known as the Black DeathIn 1347, a trade ship arrived in Italy carrying plague-infested ratsThe plague swept quickly throughout Europe along trade routes
27For those that survived the plague years, a greater desire to celebrate and enjoy life led people to believe that they should try new things
28Individuals became the center of attention during the Renaissance Social status was based on wealth & ability, not birthrightA new way of thinking began during the Renaissance called HumanismHumanists studied the “classical” ideas of Greece & Rome & believed that individual human achievements should be celebrated
29What was expected of men & women in the Renaissance? The “ideal man” was well educated, smart, can dance, write poetry, & play music; (called a “Renaissance Man”)The “ideal woman” should have the same qualities as men but should not seek fame or political power (Renaissance women were better educated but had fewer rights than medieval women)
32Art showed peoples’ new social & political status The revival of trade in Europe helped bring an end to the Middle Ages & gave rise to the RenaissanceThe rise of cities brought artists together which led to new techniques & styles of artArt showed peoples’ new social & political statusThe rise of cities brought artists together & shared ideas—this led to new techniques & stylesIncreased trade gave rise to Italian city-states & a wealthy middle class of bankers & merchantsWealthy bankers & merchants wanted to show off their new status by commissioning art
33Art showed peoples’ new social & political status The most important Italian city-state was Florence; In this wealthy trade city, the Renaissance beganArt showed peoples’ new social & political statusThe rise of cities brought artists together & shared ideas—this led to new techniques & stylesFlorence was home to the Medici family, the wealthiest & most powerful bankers in EuropeThe Medici used their wealth to commission art for themselves & to beautify Florence
34Florence under the Medici LorenzoGuilianoCosimoThis painting by Botticelli was commissioned by Lorenzo de Medici & depicts Cosimo, Lorenzo, & Guiliano de Medici as the three magiMedici ChapelLorenzo de Medici commissioned this painting from Botticelli of the Medici brothers as the three magiThe Medici paid to build a massive domed cathedral for FlorenceThe Medici Palace
35New styles & techniques of Renaissance art Realism & emotionClassicism: inspiration from Greece & RomeEmphasis on individuals & interaction between peopleGeometric arrangementsPerspectiveUsing light & shadowsSfumato is a term used by Leonardo da Vinci to refer to a painting technique which overlays translucent layers of colour to create perceptions of depth, volume and form. In particular, it refers to the blending of colours or tones so subtly that there is no perceptible transition.An element in art, chiaroscuro (Italian for lightdark) is defined as a bold contrast between light and darkGreekRenaissance
37Donatello Donatello was the 1st great sculptor of the Renaissance Donatello revived the classical (Greco-Roman) style of sculpture that were realistic & could be viewed from all sidesDonatello’s “David” was the 1st large, free-standing human sculpture of the Renaissance
38MichelangeloMichelangelo was one of the most famous Renaissance artists:He was a painter, sculptor, architect, & poetHis sculptures & paintings showed realism, detail of the human body, & expression to show personality & emotionIn addition, artists such as the sculptor, poet, architect, and painter Michelangelo (MY•kuhl•AN•juh•LOH) Buonarroti used a realistic style when depicting the human body. Donatello (DAHN•uh•TEHL•oh) also made sculpture more realistic by carving natural postures and expressions that reveal personality. He revived a classical form in his statue of David, a boy who, according to the Bible, became a great king.
39Michelangelo sculptures “Pieta”& “David” are considered masterpieces
40Michelangelo’s greatest work is the 130 ft x 44 ft ceiling of the Sistine Chapel which shows Biblical images of amazing detail, power, & beauty
42Leonardo da Vinci Leonardo da Vinci was a true “Renaissance Man” He was a painter & sculptor whose art was known for incredible realism & emotionHe was also an inventor & scientist whose sketches reveal observations about human anatomy & new engineering technologyLeonardo, Renaissance Man Leonardo da Vinci (LAY•uh•NAHR•doh duh•VIHN•chee) was a painter, sculptor, inventor, and scientist. A true “Renaissance man,” he was interested in how things worked. He studied how a muscle moves and how veins are arranged in a leaf. He filled his notebooks with observations and sketches. Then he incorporated his findings in his art. Among his many masterpieces, Leonardo painted one of the best-known portraits in the world, the Mona Lisa (page 478). The woman in the portrait seems so real that many writers have tried to explain the thoughts behind her smile. Leonardo also produced a famous religious painting, The Last Supper. It shows the personalities of Jesus’ disciples through facial expressions.
43His “Last Supper” shows Jesus’ last meeting with the 12 apostles before the crucifixion; the facial expressions, detail, emotion made it a masterpiece
44Leonardo da Vinci’s greatest masterpiece was the “Mona Lisa” which was known for its emotion & depth
47Raphael Raphael “perfected” Renaissance painting He improved perspective and realism by studying Leonardo & MichelangeloRaphael became the favorite painter of the Pope because of his amazing detailed paintings showing a combination of famous Greeks & Romans along with Renaissance peopleRaphael Advances Realism Raphael (RAHF•ee•uhl) Sanzio was younger than Michelangelo and Leonardo. He learned from studying their works. One of Raphael’s favorite subjects was the Madonna and child. Raphael often portrayed their expressions as gentle and calm. He was famous for his use of Perspective. In his greatest achievement, Raphael filled the walls of Pope Julius II’s library with paintings. One of these, School of Athens (page 479), conveys the classical influence on the Renaissance. Raphael painted famous Renaissance figures, such as Michelangelo, Leonardo, and himself, as classical philosophers and their students.
48Raphael’s greatest painting was “School of Athens” which blended Classical figures from Greece & Rome with important people from the RenaissancePlato (drawn tolook like Da Vinci)AristotleRaphaelPythagorasMichelangeloEuclid
50Filippo Brunelleschi Brunelleschi was Florence’s greatest architect: He studied the Roman Pantheon when he built the Cuppolo of Maria del Fiore cathedral in FlorenceThe dome inspired modern building designs
51US Capital, Washington, D.C. Dome ComparisonsUS capitalUS Capital, Washington, D.C.St. Peter’s, RomeIl Duomo, FlorenceSt. Paul’s, London
53As these ideas spread, this “Northern Renaissance” developed its own characteristics The Renaissance spread from Italy as scholars & merchants from other areas visited Italian city-states
54The Renaissance in France was most known for its unique architecture
55The Renaissance in England was most known for literature, especially the plays of William Shakespeare
56The Renaissance in the Netherlands was most known for realism in art Wedding Portrait by Jan Van Eyck
57Another important renaissance man was the inventor Johann Gutenberg’s who invention of the moveable-type printing press in 1453.
58He produced his first book — the Gutenberg Bible — in 1455 He produced his first book — the Gutenberg Bible — in By 1500, presses in Europe had printed nearly 10 million books
59Written works became available in English, French, Spanish, Italian, or German (vernacular-the spoken language)Printing made books less expensive and more availableAfter reading the Bible, people formed new ideas about Christianity (these ideas were different from official Church teachingsMore people began to read (The Bible was a popular book)
60Guess if the following pieces of art (A-J) are: Renaissance or Medieval