Presentation on theme: "18 th Century Social and Economic Change The Dawn of the Agricultural and Industrial Revolutions."— Presentation transcript:
18 th Century Social and Economic Change The Dawn of the Agricultural and Industrial Revolutions.
Economic and demographic changes 1700, 80% of western Europeans were farmers; higher % in eastern Europe Most people lived in poverty. Significant population growth until 1650; slows down until 1750 when it starts to dramatically rise again.
Population Explosion after 1750 Limits to population growth before 1700: - famine, disease, war Reasons for population growth: disappearance of plague improved sanitation, improved transportation for food distribution (canal and road building in western Europe), increased food supply (esp. potato).
Falling Death Rates With the exception of England, birth rates did not significantly rise, but death rates fell. A better nourished population (due to better weather, better agricultural practices, and better transport) led to people living longer.
Impact of Profit Inflation Inflation due to rising population and increased demand. “Profit inflation” stimulated economic growth. By the end of the 18 th century, prices outperform wages, leading to hardship for the poor, particularly in France. Wealth moved more and more from the poor to the wealthy due to high rents and low wages Regressive tax structure that put the burden on the poor in France and much of the continent caused hardship and led to financial crises.
Protoindustrialization Cottage Industries: first and foremost a family enterprise (also called “putting-out” system) - Occurred during Agricultural Revolution Putting-out system: city manufacturers took advantage of cheaper labor in the countryside increased rural population eager to supplement agricultural income. began to challenge urban craft industry
The European Linen Industry
Conclusion Demographic changes in the 18 th century were allowing population growth to occur due to expansion in agricultural production. Population growth contributed to the increased demand, leading to “protoindustrialization” in the textile industries.