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©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers The 1780s CHAPTER 8 NEW BEGINNINGS CREATED EQUAL JONES WOOD MAY BORSTELMANN RUIZ
©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers “…to see rising in America an empire of liberty, and a prospect of two or three hundred millions of freemen, without one noble or one king among them.” John Adams, 1786
©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers TIMELINE 1786Shays’ Rebellion Virginia’s “Bill for Establishing Religious Freedom” 1787 Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia U.S. Constitution signed Northwest Territory created The Federalist, Hamilton, Jay, and Madison 1788U.S. Constitution ratified 1789Washington elected President 1789Judiciary Act of 1789 1790First U.S. Census Congress restricts citizenship to “free white persons” Chief Little Turtle’s victory over U.S. troops
©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers NEW BEGINNINGS Overview HBeating Swords into Plowshares HCompeting for Control of the Mississippi Valley HCreditors and Debtors HDrafting a New Constitution HRatification and the Bill of Rights
©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers HThe Spread of Smallpox Across North America 1775-1782
©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers BEATING SWORDS INTO PLOWSHARES HWill the Army Seize Control? HThe Society of Cincinnati HRenaming the Landscape HAn Independent Culture
©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers BEATING SWORDS INTO PLOWSHARES HThe questions facing the new republic: HWho benefits the most? HWho directs the new republic? HWith whom will the power rest? HWho will hold the authority? HWhat will the new cultural patterns be?
©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers Will the Army Seize Control? HRumblings from the military about pay. Would it be half pay for life? HA duty of 5% on imported goods to raise money for the new republic. HThe Nationalists: The income would benefit the Confederacy and the government would assume control of paying the military wages. HFebruary, 1783: Horatio Gates petitions military to wait, if their demands are not met, veiled threats of a military coup. HMarch 15, 1783: Washington meets with officers and dissuades them from any action. HApril, 1783: Congress assures back wages for officers, and guarantees full pay to officers for the next 5 years.
©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers The Society of Cincinnati HRoman general Cincinnatus: his sword for a plow HMay, 1783: General Knox announces formation of the Society named after the Roman. HA whole month’s wages to join HHereditary membership HConsiderations on the Society or Order of Cincinnati…with Remarks on Its Consequences to the Freedom and Happiness of the Republic, Judge Aedanus Burke
©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers Renaming the Landscape HAmerica renames its towns, streets, schools etc. to rid itself of reminders of royalty and to honor its war heroes and American heroes. HDunmore to Shenandoah (Indian name) HChristopher Columbus remembered HCincinnati in honor of the Society HWar heroes: Lafayette, Pulaski, Steuben, Washington
©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers An Independent Culture HAmerican Spelling Book, Webster (1783) HCopyright laws for American literary works H1784: First map of the U.S. HGeography Made Easy, Morse HBartram’s nature book HNotes on the State of Virginia, Jefferson (1785) HLetters from an American Farmer, Crèvecoeur (1782) H1785: Society for the Promotion of the Manumission Slaves (Jay and Hamilton)
©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers COMPETING FOR CONTROL OF THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY HDisputed Territory: The Old Southwest HAmerican Claims and Indian Resistance H“We Are Now Masters”: The Old Northwest HThe Northwest Ordinance of 1787
©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers Disputed Territory: The Old Southwest HSpanish territory: HLouisiana, West Florida, East Florida, HSt. Augustine, Pensacola, New Orleans, Natchez, St. Louis HThe lower Mississippi HAmerican encroachment HThe 31st parallel H10,000 settlers near Knoxville HOhio River between Lexington and Louisville HNashville HEnglish granted rights to Americans to navigate the Mississippi American encroachment
©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers American Claims and Indian Resistance HGeorgia: Yazoo region and Gov. Walton’s sales H1796: Tennessee HVirginia and Carolinas expand west HNative Americans between the Spanish and Americans HCreeks choose leader of European-American descent HCherokee warrior Dragging Canoe and the Chicamuagas
©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers HA Native American Ohio Before 1785
©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers “We Are Now Masters”: The Old Northwest H“We are now Masters of this Island” General Schuyler to the Iroquois HTreaties between Americans and Iroquois and Ohio Valley tribes HWestern land acquisitions HLand Ordinance of 1785 HJefferson’s proposal and the final outcome
©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 HLaw determining how territories north of the Ohio River would be governed HImmediate prohibition of slavery north of the Ohio River; yet deportation of runaway slaves allowed HOnly 3 to 5 new states HIncreased property requirements for citizens to vote or hold office HTerritorial officals: governor, secretary, and 3 judges HBasic rights for residents: religious freedom, trial by jury, access to common-law judicial proceedings HFull entry into union as equal states
©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers CREDITORS AND DEBTORS HNew Sources of Wealth H“Tumults in New England” HThe Massachusetts Regulation
©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers New Sources of Wealth HBritain imposes restrictions on trade with West Indies HAmerican merchants explore new markets with the Russians, Hawaii, China HThe speculative market HThe wealthy buy loan certificates, paper notes, and wartime securities at low rates HWealth concentrates in a minority HThe wealthy minority sees opportunities to influence power by becoming involved in politics
©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers “Tumults in New England” HWith resentment over heavy taxes to pay interest on debts the demand for new paper money H7 states issue paper money for debt relief HThe lack of the Caribbean market stems the cash flow and debt cases rise HRhode Island’s currency law
©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers The Massachusetts Regulation H1786: Massachusetts imposes direct tax on citizens to be paid in hard cash HShay’s Rebellion (Daniel Shays) H1786: New England Regulators march to close the courts in Hampshire County and Worcester HAttempt to seize the federal arsenal in Springfield but are stopped by a private militia HNext election they succeed in voting out the old governor and electing John Hancock HA plus for advocates of a strong national government
©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers DRAFTING A NEW CONSTITUTION HPhiladelphia: A Gathering of Like- Minded Men HCompromise and Consensus HQuestions of Representation HSlavery: The Deepest Dilemma
©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers Philadelphia: A Gathering of Like-Minded Men HMay, 1787: Constitutional Convention to consider commercial matters and improve the Articles of Confederation HRepresentatives from 12 states debate the Constitution. Rhode Island doesn’t attend. 55 white, male, well-educated delegates. HAn “excess of democracy”? A strong central government would better handle finances and be creditor friendly HRepresentation. Proportional? HUnicameral or bicameral? HBalancing the branches
©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers Compromise and Consensus HA diverse gathering of political and philosophical differences HWho has the power to elect? HCommittee on Postponed Matters HElectoral College HState legislatures set voting methods
©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers Questions of Representation HMadison and the Virginia Plan H3 separate branches, bicameral with House selected by popular vote and Senate by state legislators HPaterson and the New Jersey Plan HUnicameral, each state equal vote HFranklin’s committee works a compromise HSenate: each state 2 seats; House: proportional to state population HNational Census needed every 10 years HShould slaves count? The three-fifths formula: Every 5 slaves = 3 free people
©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers Slavery: The Deepest Dilemma HEven in light of heavy opposition to slavery, Southern planter delegates refuse any regulation or curtailed slavery. HCompromise: In exchange for for giving Congress the right to regulate international shipping, the convention allows slavery importation for at least 20 years.
©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers RATIFICATION AND THE BILL OF RIGHTS HThe Campaign for Ratification HDividing and Conquering the Anti- Federalists HAdding a Bill of Rights
©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers The Campaign for Ratification HSeptember, 1787: Confederation Congress accepts proposed Constitution and submits it to states for ratification HPennsylvania takes 3 months to ratify HDecember: Delaware, New Jersey and Georgia ratify HJanuary: Connecticut ratifies HFederalists and Anti-Federalists HThe Federalist: Publius (Hamilton and Madison) and Jay
©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers Dividing and Conquering the Anti-Federalists HA diverse coalition of Anti-Federalists oppose the new Constitution and a strong national government that threatened local politics HJuly, 1788: Through coalition building and “politicking” the Federalists get ratification from the remaining states: Massachusetts, Maryland, South Carolina, New Hampshire HRatification by 9 states makes the new Constitution the law of the land
©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers Adding a Bill of Rights HDrawn up by Madison HMotivated to ensure his election to the House, and to prevent a second national convention HInitially 12 proposed amendments focusing on individual rights HThree-fourths of the states ratify 10 amendments, known as the Bill of Rights
Early American Government Chapter 7. I. Articles of Confederation A. America’s first written form of government. B. Every state had their own constitution.
Confederation to Constitution, 1776–1791
A More Perfect Union and The Constitution Chapter 8-9.
Wrote the Bill of Rights and called the Father of our Constitution A compromise between the north and south on how slaves would be counted for representation.
Chapter 5 The Constitutional Convention Section 1.
The Constitution. Articles of Confederation Need for a central government Need for a central government Adopted in November 1777 Adopted in November 1777.
Essential Question What are the key ideas in the U.S. Constitution? What are the key ideas in the U.S. Constitution?
Chapter 9 Review. Ideas after American Revolution Republican Motherhood: Women were to raise children to be good citizens of the United States Virginia.
CONFEDERATION TO CONSTITUTION Problems America Faced War Debt Who collects taxes? Who creates money? Deciding on a government Strong.
Unit 4 New Republic to an Expanding Nation
The Articles of Confederation. Forming a New Government: What would it look like? ● A Republic? - Citizens rule through elected representatives A Democracy?
The making of the Constitution
Chapter 1: Section 3 The Constitution Monday, September 8, 2014.
Government by the States Chapter 5 Section 1. Early Government.
THE CONFEDERATION AND THE CONSTITUTION ( ) Chapter 9.
Chapter 5 – Creating a Constitution Section 1 – The Confederation Articles of Confederation: adopted Nov – loosely unified the states under a Continental.
Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Section 3 The Constitution Identify the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation. Describe the role compromise.
Formation of the United States Government. Developed idea of democracy, direct democracy, citizenship, and republic.
American Revolution 8.1 The Articles of Confederation.
Jonathon Regan https://mail.nvnet.org /~regan/
Unit 2: The Constitution of the U.S. (1781 – 1791) Our Democratic Foundations and Constitutional Principles.
Describe the political system of the US based on the Constitution of the US.
Shaping a New Nation Chapter Five.
The Constitution Chapter 2 You think you know…. Declaration of Independence Written by Thomas Jefferson Inspired by John Locke D of I opens with Jefferson.
Why did we need a Constitution? Articles were weak. No national executive No national courts No power to tax No $ for Army/Navy No power over commerce.
A More Perfect Union.
Governing a New Nation Chapter 7 Section 1. State Constitutions A. Beginning in 1776, 11 of the 13 states wrote constitutions to govern their states Two.
FORMING A NEW GOVERNMENT The Articles of Confederation and The U.S. Constitution.
First Steps Congress asked states to draft a Constitution Congress asked states to draft a Constitution Each state drafted their own Constitution Each.
The Articles of Confederation and the Constitution Chapter 5 Sections
UPDATE YOUR JOURNAL In your Table of Contents: Page Articles of Confederation.
The New Republic Begins. A. Terms A document that sets out the laws and principles of a government A document that sets out the laws and principles of.
Chapter 5 Shaping a New Nation. Continental Congress Debates States were unequal in size, wealth and population Question: should the new gov’t represent.
The Constitutional Convention 1787
Chapter 5 Section 3 Creating the Constitution. Great Compromise Agreement providing a dual system of congressional representation Three-Fifths Compromise.
Unit 4: Building a New Nation Chapter 7: Competing Visions of the Virtuous Republic.
The Birth of the Constitution
The Constitution of the United States. Weaknesses of Articles of Confederation…..a review 1. The national government could not force the states to obey.
FROM CONFEDERATION TO UNION: The Articles of Confederation and the Constitution.
Chapter 2 Section 2 Notes. After the signing of the Treaty of Paris in 1783, the colonies were now independent. Based on the words of Locke, the colonies.
Creating the Republic Chapter 7 Sections 1-3. State Constitutions During the early stages of the revolution the Continental Congress asked every state.
Forming the Constitution. Civics and Economics Goals 1.05 Identify the major domestic problems of the nation under the Articles of Confederation and assess.
**A MEETING CALLED IN PHILADELPHIA
How do you form a government? The Articles of Confederation.
“What kind of government will we have?” Defining Nationhood and the Constitutional Crises of the 1780s.
Ch. 8, section 2: Creating the Constitution *Main Idea: The states sent delegates to a convention to solve the problems of the Articles of Conf. *Why It.
The Constitutional Convention. Purpose of the Constitutional Convention The goal was to revise the Articles of Confederation Delegates quickly decided.
What next??? Even before independence was declared, the 2 nd Continental Congress realized they would need to unite the colonies together under one.
Chapter 5 Section 2 ‘Drafting the Constitution’
The Confederation & the Constitution Chapter 9: The Articles of Confederation.
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