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©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers The 1780s CHAPTER 8 NEW BEGINNINGS CREATED EQUAL JONES WOOD MAY BORSTELMANN RUIZ
©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers “…to see rising in America an empire of liberty, and a prospect of two or three hundred millions of freemen, without one noble or one king among them.” John Adams, 1786
©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers TIMELINE 1786Shays’ Rebellion Virginia’s “Bill for Establishing Religious Freedom” 1787 Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia U.S. Constitution signed Northwest Territory created The Federalist, Hamilton, Jay, and Madison 1788U.S. Constitution ratified 1789Washington elected President 1789Judiciary Act of First U.S. Census Congress restricts citizenship to “free white persons” Chief Little Turtle’s victory over U.S. troops
©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers NEW BEGINNINGS Overview HBeating Swords into Plowshares HCompeting for Control of the Mississippi Valley HCreditors and Debtors HDrafting a New Constitution HRatification and the Bill of Rights
©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers HThe Spread of Smallpox Across North America
©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers BEATING SWORDS INTO PLOWSHARES HWill the Army Seize Control? HThe Society of Cincinnati HRenaming the Landscape HAn Independent Culture
©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers BEATING SWORDS INTO PLOWSHARES HThe questions facing the new republic: HWho benefits the most? HWho directs the new republic? HWith whom will the power rest? HWho will hold the authority? HWhat will the new cultural patterns be?
©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers Will the Army Seize Control? HRumblings from the military about pay. Would it be half pay for life? HA duty of 5% on imported goods to raise money for the new republic. HThe Nationalists: The income would benefit the Confederacy and the government would assume control of paying the military wages. HFebruary, 1783: Horatio Gates petitions military to wait, if their demands are not met, veiled threats of a military coup. HMarch 15, 1783: Washington meets with officers and dissuades them from any action. HApril, 1783: Congress assures back wages for officers, and guarantees full pay to officers for the next 5 years.
©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers The Society of Cincinnati HRoman general Cincinnatus: his sword for a plow HMay, 1783: General Knox announces formation of the Society named after the Roman. HA whole month’s wages to join HHereditary membership HConsiderations on the Society or Order of Cincinnati…with Remarks on Its Consequences to the Freedom and Happiness of the Republic, Judge Aedanus Burke
©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers Renaming the Landscape HAmerica renames its towns, streets, schools etc. to rid itself of reminders of royalty and to honor its war heroes and American heroes. HDunmore to Shenandoah (Indian name) HChristopher Columbus remembered HCincinnati in honor of the Society HWar heroes: Lafayette, Pulaski, Steuben, Washington
©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers An Independent Culture HAmerican Spelling Book, Webster (1783) HCopyright laws for American literary works H1784: First map of the U.S. HGeography Made Easy, Morse HBartram’s nature book HNotes on the State of Virginia, Jefferson (1785) HLetters from an American Farmer, Crèvecoeur (1782) H1785: Society for the Promotion of the Manumission Slaves (Jay and Hamilton)
©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers COMPETING FOR CONTROL OF THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY HDisputed Territory: The Old Southwest HAmerican Claims and Indian Resistance H“We Are Now Masters”: The Old Northwest HThe Northwest Ordinance of 1787
©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers Disputed Territory: The Old Southwest HSpanish territory: HLouisiana, West Florida, East Florida, HSt. Augustine, Pensacola, New Orleans, Natchez, St. Louis HThe lower Mississippi HAmerican encroachment HThe 31st parallel H10,000 settlers near Knoxville HOhio River between Lexington and Louisville HNashville HEnglish granted rights to Americans to navigate the Mississippi American encroachment
©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers American Claims and Indian Resistance HGeorgia: Yazoo region and Gov. Walton’s sales H1796: Tennessee HVirginia and Carolinas expand west HNative Americans between the Spanish and Americans HCreeks choose leader of European-American descent HCherokee warrior Dragging Canoe and the Chicamuagas
©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers HA Native American Ohio Before 1785
©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers “We Are Now Masters”: The Old Northwest H“We are now Masters of this Island” General Schuyler to the Iroquois HTreaties between Americans and Iroquois and Ohio Valley tribes HWestern land acquisitions HLand Ordinance of 1785 HJefferson’s proposal and the final outcome
©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 HLaw determining how territories north of the Ohio River would be governed HImmediate prohibition of slavery north of the Ohio River; yet deportation of runaway slaves allowed HOnly 3 to 5 new states HIncreased property requirements for citizens to vote or hold office HTerritorial officals: governor, secretary, and 3 judges HBasic rights for residents: religious freedom, trial by jury, access to common-law judicial proceedings HFull entry into union as equal states
©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers CREDITORS AND DEBTORS HNew Sources of Wealth H“Tumults in New England” HThe Massachusetts Regulation
©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers New Sources of Wealth HBritain imposes restrictions on trade with West Indies HAmerican merchants explore new markets with the Russians, Hawaii, China HThe speculative market HThe wealthy buy loan certificates, paper notes, and wartime securities at low rates HWealth concentrates in a minority HThe wealthy minority sees opportunities to influence power by becoming involved in politics
©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers “Tumults in New England” HWith resentment over heavy taxes to pay interest on debts the demand for new paper money H7 states issue paper money for debt relief HThe lack of the Caribbean market stems the cash flow and debt cases rise HRhode Island’s currency law
©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers The Massachusetts Regulation H1786: Massachusetts imposes direct tax on citizens to be paid in hard cash HShay’s Rebellion (Daniel Shays) H1786: New England Regulators march to close the courts in Hampshire County and Worcester HAttempt to seize the federal arsenal in Springfield but are stopped by a private militia HNext election they succeed in voting out the old governor and electing John Hancock HA plus for advocates of a strong national government
©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers DRAFTING A NEW CONSTITUTION HPhiladelphia: A Gathering of Like- Minded Men HCompromise and Consensus HQuestions of Representation HSlavery: The Deepest Dilemma
©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers Philadelphia: A Gathering of Like-Minded Men HMay, 1787: Constitutional Convention to consider commercial matters and improve the Articles of Confederation HRepresentatives from 12 states debate the Constitution. Rhode Island doesn’t attend. 55 white, male, well-educated delegates. HAn “excess of democracy”? A strong central government would better handle finances and be creditor friendly HRepresentation. Proportional? HUnicameral or bicameral? HBalancing the branches
©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers Compromise and Consensus HA diverse gathering of political and philosophical differences HWho has the power to elect? HCommittee on Postponed Matters HElectoral College HState legislatures set voting methods
©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers Questions of Representation HMadison and the Virginia Plan H3 separate branches, bicameral with House selected by popular vote and Senate by state legislators HPaterson and the New Jersey Plan HUnicameral, each state equal vote HFranklin’s committee works a compromise HSenate: each state 2 seats; House: proportional to state population HNational Census needed every 10 years HShould slaves count? The three-fifths formula: Every 5 slaves = 3 free people
©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers Slavery: The Deepest Dilemma HEven in light of heavy opposition to slavery, Southern planter delegates refuse any regulation or curtailed slavery. HCompromise: In exchange for for giving Congress the right to regulate international shipping, the convention allows slavery importation for at least 20 years.
©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers RATIFICATION AND THE BILL OF RIGHTS HThe Campaign for Ratification HDividing and Conquering the Anti- Federalists HAdding a Bill of Rights
©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers The Campaign for Ratification HSeptember, 1787: Confederation Congress accepts proposed Constitution and submits it to states for ratification HPennsylvania takes 3 months to ratify HDecember: Delaware, New Jersey and Georgia ratify HJanuary: Connecticut ratifies HFederalists and Anti-Federalists HThe Federalist: Publius (Hamilton and Madison) and Jay
©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers Dividing and Conquering the Anti-Federalists HA diverse coalition of Anti-Federalists oppose the new Constitution and a strong national government that threatened local politics HJuly, 1788: Through coalition building and “politicking” the Federalists get ratification from the remaining states: Massachusetts, Maryland, South Carolina, New Hampshire HRatification by 9 states makes the new Constitution the law of the land
©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers Adding a Bill of Rights HDrawn up by Madison HMotivated to ensure his election to the House, and to prevent a second national convention HInitially 12 proposed amendments focusing on individual rights HThree-fourths of the states ratify 10 amendments, known as the Bill of Rights
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