2 The Young NationIn the new United States of America, a republic was formed.
3 The Young NationIn a republic power resides with a body of citizens who have the right to vote.Elected leaders must govern according to a constitution.
4 The Young NationMany states already had constitutions that embodied ideas such as separation of powers and a list of rights guaranteeing freedoms.
5 The Young NationThe Virginia Statue of Religious Freedom, passed in 1786, reflected the concern for individual liberty.It said that Virginia no longer had an official church.
6 The Young NationVoting and most other political rights were extended to white males only.
7 The Young Nation After the Revolution, women made some advances. They could more easily obtain a divorce.They also gained greater access to education.
8 The Young NationThousands of enslaved African Americans obtained their freedom during and after the war.Many American leaders felt that enslaving people conflicted with the new views of liberty and equality.
9 The Young NationOn March 2, 1781, American leaders created the Articles of Confederation which loosely organized the states under one governing body, the Confederation Congress.
10 The Young NationUnder the Articles of Confederation, Congress could negotiate with other nations, raise armies, and declare war, but could not regulate trade or impose taxes.
11 The Young NationTo raise money, Congress created the Northwest Ordinance of 1787, a plan for how states would be created in the lands west of the Appalachians and north of the Ohio River—the Northwest Territory.
12 The Young NationBecause Congress lacked the power to regulate trade and to tax, the new country fell into a recession, or economic slowdown.Congress could not pay its expenses or war debts, or stop the states from issuing their own money, which further damaged the economy.
13 The Young Nation Poor farmers were hit hard by the recession. In 1787 a bankrupt Massachusetts farmer named Daniel Shays led 1,200 followers in a protests of new taxes.
14 The Young NationShay’s Rebellion illustrated the weaknesses of the Confederation Congress.People began to argue for a stronger central government.
15 The Young Nation What did the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 accomplish? The Northwest Ordinance created a plan for selling and then governing the lands of the Northwest Territory. It spelled out how states would be created, and it guaranteed rights including freedom of religion and freedom from slavery.
16 A New ConstitutionAt the Constitutional Convention in 1787, 55 delegates went to Philadelphia to revise the Articles of Confederation.
17 A New ConstitutionThey threw them out and wrote a new framework of government.
18 A New ConstitutionThe convention appointed a special committee to resolve differences between large and small states.The committee worked out the Great Compromise. (Virginia Plan and New Jersey Plan)
19 A New ConstitutionIt proposed that in the House of Representatives, the states would be represented according to the size of their populations.The Senate would have equal representation.
20 A New ConstitutionThe voters in each state would elect the House of Representatives.The state legislatures would choose the senators.
21 A New ConstitutionThe Three-Fifths Compromise was a plan for counting enslaved people in a state.
22 A New ConstitutionEvery five enslaved people in a state would count as three free persons for determining both representation and taxes.
23 A New ConstitutionThe Constitution was based on the principle of popular sovereignty, or rule by the people.The Constitution created a system of government called federalism.
24 A New ConstitutionThis divided the government between the federal, or national, government and the state governments.
25 A New ConstitutionThe Constitution provided for a separation of powers among three branches of government.
26 A New Constitution The legislative branch makes the laws. It is made up of the two houses of Congress. (Senate and House of Representatives)
27 A New Constitution The executive branch enforces the laws. It is headed by a president.
28 A New Constitution The judicial branch interprets federal laws. It is made up of a system of federal courts.
29 A New ConstitutionThe Constitution also provides for a system of checks and balances to prevent any one of the three branches from becoming too powerful.
30 A New ConstitutionThe powers of the president include proposing legislation, appointing judges, putting down rebellions, and the ability to veto, or reject legislation.
31 A New ConstitutionThe Powers of the legislative branch include the ability to override the veto with a two-thirds vote in both houses.The Senate approves or rejects presidential appointments.
32 A New ConstitutionCongress can impeach, or formally accuse of misconduct, and then remove the president or any high official in the executive or judicial branch if convicted during trial.The judicial branch would hear all cases arising under federal laws and the Constitution.
33 A New ConstitutionThe Constitution has a system for making amendments, or changes to the Constitution.There is a two-step process for amending the Constitution—proposal and ratification.
34 A New ConstitutionNew amendments can be proposed by a vote of two-thirds of the members of both houses of Congress, or two-thirds of the states could call a constitutional convention to propose new amendments.A proposed amendment must be ratified by three-fourths of the state legislatures or by conventions in three-fourths of the states.
35 A New ConstitutionHow does the Constitution provide for a separation of powers?It provides for three branches of government. The legislative branch makes the laws. It is made up of two houses of Congress. The executive branch enforces the laws. It is headed by the president. The judicial branch interprets federal laws. It is made up of a system of federal courts.
36 The Fight for Ratification On September 28, 1787, the Confederation Congress submitted the Constitution to the states for ratification, or approval.Nine of the 13 states had to approve it.
37 The Fight for Ratification People who supported the Constitution were Federalists.Many Federalists were interested in protecting their property and regulating trade.
38 The Fight for Ratification Constitution opponents were called Anti-federalists.They wanted a national government but were concerned about which would be supreme—the state governments or the national government.
39 The Fight for Ratification Federalists organized their arguments in a collection of 85 essays called The Federalists.
40 The Fight for Ratification In order to get the Constitution ratified in Massachusetts, Federalists promised to add a bill of rights to the Constitution once it was ratified and to support an amendment that would reserve for the states all powers not specifically granted to the federal government.
41 The Fight for Ratification The Bill of Rights, or the first ten amendments to the Constitution, guaranteed the freedoms of speech, press, religion; protection from unreasonable searches and seizures; and the right to a trial by jury.
42 The Fight for Ratification In June of 1788, New Hampshire became the ninth state to ratify the Constitution.New York and Virginia had not ratified it, and many feared the new government would not succeed without their support.Gradually, all 13 states ratified the Constitution.
43 The Fight for Ratification George Washington was chosen as the first president under the new Constitution.
44 The Fight for Ratification What finally convinced Virginia and New York to ratify the Constitution?Virginia ratified the Constitution when the Federalists agreed to add a bill of rights. New York agreed to ratify the Constitution once it learned that Virginia and New Hampshire had ratified it. New York did not want to operated independently of all the surrounding states.