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CHAPTER 10: AMERICA CLAIMS AN EMPIRE CHAPTER 10.1: IMPERIALISM & AMERICA CHAPTER 10.2: THE SPANISH- AMERICAN WAR CHAPTER 10.3: ACQUIRING NEW LANDS CHAPTER.

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Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 10: AMERICA CLAIMS AN EMPIRE CHAPTER 10.1: IMPERIALISM & AMERICA CHAPTER 10.2: THE SPANISH- AMERICAN WAR CHAPTER 10.3: ACQUIRING NEW LANDS CHAPTER."— Presentation transcript:

1 CHAPTER 10: AMERICA CLAIMS AN EMPIRE CHAPTER 10.1: IMPERIALISM & AMERICA CHAPTER 10.2: THE SPANISH- AMERICAN WAR CHAPTER 10.3: ACQUIRING NEW LANDS CHAPTER 10.4: AMERICA AS A WORLD POWER

2 CHAPTER 10.1: IMPERIALISM & AMERICA THIS SECTION IS ABOUT HOW BEGINNING IN 1867 GLOBAL COMPETITION CAUSED THE U.S. TO EXPAND.

3 AMERICAN EXPANSIONISM AMERICA FOLLOWS EUROPEAN POWERS’ POLICY OF IMPERIALISM STRONGER NATIONS EXTEND CONTROL OVER WEAKER TERRITORIES EUROPEANS CONTROLLED AFRICA & WERE MOVING ON ASIA

4 AMERICAN EXPANSIONISM CONT. 3 FACTORS FUELING IMPERIALISM MILITARY STRENGTH ADMIRAL MAHAN-U.S. MUST BUILD-UP NAVY TO COMPETE WITH WORLD POWERS, BECAME 3 RD LARGEST NEW MARKETS U.S. PRODUCED MORE FOOD & GOODS THAN NEEDED HERE, BUT NEEDED MARKETS TO SELL GOODS & MORE RAW MATERIALS BELIEF IN CULTURAL SUPERIORITY MANY IN U.S. BELIEVED IT WAS AMERICANS’ JOB TO SPREAD CIVILIZATION & CHRISTIANITY

5 THE U.S. ACQUIRES ALASKA 1867 SEC. OF STATE W. SEWARD BUYS ALASKA FOR $7.2 MILLION FROM RUSSIANS DOUBTERS CALLED IT “SEWARD’S FOLLY” OR “SEWARD’S ICE BOX”.02 CENTS AN ACRE NEW SOURCE OF TIMBER, MINERALS & OIL 1959 ALASKA BECOMES 49 TH STATE

6 THE U.S. TAKES HAWAII 1867 U.S. TAKES MIDWAY ISLANDS IN PACIFIC OCEAN HAWAII HELD STRATEGIC PACIFIC CROSSING LOCATION AMERICANS OWNED SUGAR PLANTATIONS ON ISLANDS 1887 U.S. BUILT NAVAL BASE AT PEARL HARBOR G. CLEVELAND RECOGNIZED REPUBLIC OF HAWAII W. McKINLEY FAVORED ANNEXATION OF HAWAII U.S. SENDS MARINES TO OVERTHROW QUEEN, CONGRESS PROCLAIMS HAWAII A TERRITORY TO PROTECT WEALTHY AMERICAN SUGAR OWNERS BECAME 50 TH STATE IN 1959

7 CHAPTER 10.2: THE SPANISH- AMERICAN WAR THIS SECTION IS ABOUT HOW IN 1898 THE U.S. WENT TO WAR WITH SPAIN TO HELP CUBA GAIN INDEPENDENCE.

8 CUBANS REBEL AGAINST SPAIN CUBA ONLY 90 MILES FROM SOUTH FLORIDA U.S. HAD HEAVY INVESTMENTS IN CUBAN SUGAR CANE PLANTATIONS 1895 CUBA’S SECOND REVOLUTION EXILES LED BY JOSE MARTI REVOLTED ATTACKED AMERICAN OWNED PROPERTY WANTED TO PROVOKE U.S. TO HELP

9 WAR FEVER ERUPTS AMERICANS DIVIDED SUPPORT SPAIN FOR ECONOMIC GAIN SUPPORT CUBANS FOR FREEDOM & INDEPENDENCE, “CUBA LIBRE!” YELLOW JOURNALISM BEGINS HEARST & PULITZER PRINT EXAGGERATED ACCOUNTS OF CUBAN REVOLT TO SELL PAPERS HEARST TELLS ARTIST F. REMINGTON “YOU FURNISH THE PICTURES & I’LL FURNISH THE WAR.”

10 WAR FEVER ERUPTS DE LOME LETTER SPANISH MINISTER’S LETTER STOLEN BY A CUBAN REBEL CRITICIZED PRES. MCKINLEY, CALLED HIM WEAK ATTACK ON U.S. PRESIDENT ANGERED AMERICANS

11 WAR FEVER ERUPTS THE U.S.S. MAINE 2/15/1898 EXPLODES IN HAVANA HARBOR 268 U.S. SAILORS KILLED SPAIN BLAMED FOR THE ATTACK “REMEMBER THE MAINE, TO HELL WITH SPAIN”

12 WAR WITH SPAIN ERUPTS 4/20/1898 U.S. DECLARES WAR ON SPAIN “REMEMBER THE MAINE” BECOMES WAR SLOGAN U.S. LAUNCHES SURPRISE ATTACK ON SPANISH CONTROLLED PHILIPPINES COMMODORE DEWEY DESTROYS SPANISH FLEET IN HOURS BY AUGUST U.S. & FILIPINO REBELS DEFEAT SPAIN

13 WAR WITH SPAIN ERUPTS JUNE 1898 U.S. TROOPS LAND IN CUBA 17,000 AMERICANS TR & ROUGH RIDERS U.S. WINS BATTLES OF SAN JUAN HILL & KETTLE HILL, TR DECLARED A NATIONAL HERO JULY 25, 1898 U.S. INVADES PUERTO RICO

14 WAR WITH SPAIN ERUPTS TREATY OF PARIS 8/12/1898 ENDS WAR WITH SPAIN SEC. OF STATE JOHN HAY SAYS “A SPLENDID LITTLE WAR” SPAIN FREES CUBA U.S. GOT GUAM, PUERTO RICO & BOUGHT PHILIPPINES FOR $20 MILLION

15 WAR WITH SPAIN ERUPTS DEBATE OVER U.S. IMPERIALISM PRES. MCKINLEY FOR IMPERIALISM B.T. WASHINGTON, ANDREW CARNEGIE & SAM GOMPERS AGAINST IMPERIALISM POLITICAL, ECONOMIC & MORAL REASONS AGAINST THE TAKING OF COUNTRIES

16 CHAPTER 10.3: ACQUIRING NEW LANDS THIS SECTION IS ABOUT HOW, IN THE EARLY 1900s, THE U.S. ENGAGED IN CONFLICTS IN PUERTO RICO, CUBA & THE PHILIPPINES.

17 RULING PUERTO RICO U.S. OCCUPIES PR DURING WAR WITH SPAIN PR UNDER U.S. MILITARY CONTROL STRATEGICALLY IMPORTANT FOR U.S. PRESENCE IN CARIBBEAN 1900 FORAKER ACT ENDED MILITARY RULE, SET-UP CIVILIAN GOV’T U.S. PRES. APPOINTS PR GOVERNOR 1917 PRs GRANTED U.S. CITIZENSHIP PR IS A U.S. TERRITORY AND HAS REFUSED STATEHOOD SEVERAL TIMES

18 CUBA & THE U.S. U.S. TROOPS OCCUPY CUBA AT END OF SPANISH- AMERICAN WAR U.S. MILITARY PROVIDES AID TO CUBA 1900 CUBA WRITES ITS’ OWN CONSTITUTION 1901 U.S. FORCES CUBA TO ADD PLATT AMENDMENT, MADE CUBA A U.S. PROTECTORATE U.S. WOULD CONTROL SOME ASPECTS OF CUBAN GOV’T U.S. COULD BUY/LEASE LAND FOR NAVAL BASE (GUANTANOMO BAY) U.S. WANTED TO PROTECT BUSINESS INTERESTS IN CUBA, CARNEGIE WAS AGAINST COLONIZING NATIONS

19 FILIPINOS REBEL FILIPINOS OUTRAGED OVER U.S. ANNEXATION (TAKE OVER) THE PHILIPPINES WERE A STRATEGIC GATEWAY TO ASIAN COUNTRIES INCLUDING CHINA AGUINALDO (FILIPINO REBEL) VOWS TO FIGHT AMERICA FOR INDEPENDENCE

20 FILIPINOS REBEL 2/1899 PHILIPPINE-AMERICAN WAR BEGINS FILIPINOS USE GUERRILLA TACTICS U.S. CRACKS DOWN ON CIVILIANS 3 YEAR WAR-COST $400 MILLION 20,000 FILIPINOS KILLED 4,000 AMERICANS KILLED U.S. WINS, SETS-UP NEW GOV’T PHILIPPINES BECOMES INDEPENDENT 7/4/1946

21 FOREIGN INFLUENCE IN CHINA EUROPEAN POWERS ALREADY IN CHINA; FRANCE, GERMANY & BRITAIN, JAPAN ALSO MOVING INTO CHINA U.S. OPEN DOOR POLICY SEC. STATE JOHN HAY FEARED CHINA WAS BEING CARVED INTO COLONIES WRITES LETTERS TO FOREIGN POWERS “OPEN DOOR NOTES” ASKED IF OTHER POWERS WOULD SHARE TRADING RIGHTS WITH U.S. NO NATION WOULD HAVE MONOPOLY IN CHINA

22 FOREIGN INFLUENCE IN CHINA 3 BELIEFS OF OPEN DOOR POLICY & AMERICA’S INDUSTRIAL CAPITALIST ECONOMY: U.S. ECONOMIC GROWTH DEPENDED ON EXPORTS U.S. HAD THE RIGHT TO INTERVENE OVERSEAS TO PROTECT MARKETS CLOSING ANY AREA OF THE WORLD TO AMERICA THREATENED OUR SURVIVAL

23 FOREIGN INFLUENCE IN CHINA THE BOXER REBELLION BOXERS-(MARTIAL ARTS SOCIETY) VOWED TO RID CHINA OF “FOREIGN DEVILS” 1900 REBELLION BEGINS IN 2 MONTHS BOXERS KILL HUNDREDS OF FOREIGNERS & MISSIONARIES TROOPS FROM BRITAIN, FRANCE, GERMANY, JAPAN & U.S. PUT DOWN REBELLION

24 THE IMPACT OF U.S. TERRITORIAL GAINS 1900 MCKINLEY WINS REELECTION SUPPORTING IMPERIALISM MOST AMERICANS SUPPORTED U.S. IMPERIALISM ANTI-IMPERIALISTS BELIEVED U.S. SHOULD NOT RULE OTHER PEOPLE WITHOUT THEIR CONSENT W.J. BRYAN, GROVER CLEVELAND, ANDREW CARNEGIE, JANE ADDAMS & MARK TWAIN

25 CHAPTER 10.4: AMERICA AS A WORLD POWER THIS SECTION IS ABOUT HOW AMERICAN INVOLVEMENT IN THE RUSSO-JAPANESE WAR, THE BUILDING OF THE PANAMA CANAL & INTERVENTION INTO CENTRAL & LATIN AMERICA ADDED TO AMERICA’S POWER.

26 T. ROOSEVELT & THE WORLD TR BECOMES PRES. IN 1901 RUSSO-JAPANESE WAR 1904 JAPAN & RUSSIA FIGHTING OVER KOREA JAPAN SECRETLY ASKS TR TO MEDIATE PEACE TALKS TR WINS NOBEL PEACE PRIZE FOR ENDING WAR

27 T. ROOSEVELT & THE WORLD TR BELIEVED U.S. NEEDED A CANAL ACROSS CENTRAL AMERICA 1903 U.S. BUYS CANAL RIGHTS FROM FRENCH CO. U.S. HELPS PANAMA GAIN INDEPENDENCE FROM COLOMBIA U.S. & PANAMA SIGN TREATY TO SELL/RENT LAND AS PART OF “CANAL ZONE”

28 T. ROOSEVELT & THE WORLD THE PANAMA CANAL 1904 CONSTRUCTION BEGINS 1914 CANAL OPENS OVER 43,000 WORKERS 5,600 DIED DURING CONSTRUCTION $380 MILLION TO BUILD FASTER TRAVEL BETWEEN ATLANTIC & PACIFIC OCEANS 51 MILES LONG, USES LOCKS FOR DIFFERING OCEAN LEVELS

29 T. ROOSEVELT & THE WORLD TR WANTS U.S. TO BE DOMINANT FOREIGN INFLUENCE IN CARIBBEAN & CENTRAL AMERICA 1823 MONROE DOCTRINE, PRES. MONROE WARNS EUROPEAN POWERS TO STAY OUT OF LATIN AMERICA TR’S POLICY “SPEAK SOFTLY & CARRY A BIG STICK” 1904 ROOSEVELT COROLLARY-U.S. WOULD USE FORCE TO PROTECT INTERESTS IN LATIN AMERICA & WESTERN HEMISPHERE TAFT CONTINUED WITH “DOLLAR DIPLOMACY” USE GOV’T LOANS & BANKS TO SUPPORT STRUGGLING NATIONS

30 WOODROW WILSON’S MISSIONARY DIPLOMACY WILSON’S MISSIONARY DIPLOMACY ADDED MORAL TONE TO MONROE DOCTRINE U.S. HAD MORAL RESPONSIBILITY TO NOT RECOGNIZE OPPRESSIVE, UNDEMOCRATIC OR HOSTILE LATIN AMERICAN GOVERNMENTS WILSON PRESSURED WESTERN GOV’Ts TO BECOME DEMOCRACIES OR LOSE U.S. SUPPORT

31 WOODROW WILSON’S MISSIONARY DIPLOMACY MEXICAN REVOLUTION 1911 U.S. BACKED MILITARY LEADER WHO WAS OVERTHROWN BY PEASANTS & WORKERS 1913 GENERAL HUERTA SEIZES GOV’T, WILSON REFUSES TO RECOGNIZE “A GOV’T OF BUTCHERS” 1914 U.S. INTERVENES IN MEXICO AFTER ARREST OF U.S. SAILORS MARINES ORDERED TO VERACRUZ 18 AMERICANS KILLED IN INVASION U.S. & MEXICO NEARLY GO TO WAR

32 WOODROW WILSON’S MISSIONARY DIPLOMACY REBELLION IN MEXICO REBEL LEADERS PANCHO VILLA (ROBIN HOOD FIGURE)& EMILIANO ZAPATA OPPOSE NEW AMERICAN BACKED GOV’T VILLA THREATENS TO ATTACK U.S. FOR SUPPORTING NEW GOV’T VILLA’S MEN KILL OVER 20 AMERICANS WORKING IN MEXICO

33 WOODROW WILSON’S MISSIONARY DIPLOMACY THE HUNT FOR VILLA WILSON ORDERS JOHN J. PERSHING & 15,000 TROOPS TO MEXICO TO CAPTURE VILLA “DEAD OR ALIVE” 1916 MEXICAN MILITARY ORDERED TO ATTACK U.S. ARMY IN MEXICO 1917 WILSON ORDERS PERSHING BACK TO U.S. AFTER 1 YEAR, U.S. INVOLVEMENT IN WWI SET TO BEGIN VILLA LATER ASSASSINATED IN 1923


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