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America as a World Power

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1 America as a World Power 1867 - 1920
Chapter 22 America as a World Power

2 Essential Question How did America’s growing power affect its relationships with other nations?

3 I. The United States Gains Overseas Territories
Imperialism: building an empire by founding colonies or conquering other nations (Europe) Isolationism: avoiding involvement in the affairs of other countries (U.S.) By late 1800’s, U.S. needed to expand to keep economy strong Capt. Alfred Mahan publishes The Influence of Sea Power upon History: argued for a strong navy to protect economic interests and naval bases around the world

4 Pacific Expansion 1867 - 1900 Areas acquired by the U.S.
Alaska (Seward’s Folly) – fur, timber, minerals Midway Islands – naval base Samoa – naval base Hawaii – sugar, naval base Areas opened/controlled by the U.S. Japan – trade opened with U.S. in 1853 – begins a 40-year modernization toward Japan becoming an imperial power China – spheres of influence: areas where foreign nations controlled resources Open Door Policy: all nations should have equal access to trade Boxer Rebellion: Chinese nationalists angered by foreign influence, killed foreign born people – U.S. and Europe invade

5 II. The Spanish-American War
Yellow Journalism: sensational, often exaggerated news stories Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst Vivid stories of Spanish brutality toward Cuba De Lôme Letter – Spanish minister to U.S. called President McKinley “weak” U.S.S. Maine – battleship blown up in Havana Harbor on February 15, 1898 – Spain blamed “Remember the Maine!”

6 War in the Philippines Filipinos, like the Cubans, were revolting against Spain May 1, 1898, Commodore George Dewey destroys entire Spanish Pacific fleet – no American killed U.S. troops and Filipino rebels take over led by Emilio Aquinaldo

7 War in the Caribbean U.S. Army not prepared Rough Riders
Not enough rifles or bullets Wool uniforms Ate canned meat from Civil War Yellow fever – more soldiers died of disease than battle wounds Rough Riders Led by Theodore Roosevelt Captured San Juan Hill and Kettle Hill overlooking Santiago

8 United States Gains Territories
Spain signs cease fire on August 12, 1898 Philippines Wanted freedom, but became a territory of U.S. until 1946 Filipinos fight guerrilla war with U.S. up through 1902 – 4200 American soldiers killed Puerto Rico Wanted freedom, but became a territory of U.S. Cuba Teller Amendment (1898): United States would not annex Cuba Platt Amendment (1899): allowed the U.S. to intervene in Cuban affairs – lasted until 1959

9 III. The United States and Latin America
Panama Canal: Connects Atlantic and Pacific oceans U.S. supported Panama’s independence from Colombia Construction began in 1904 – took 10 years to build

10 U.S. Policy Toward Latin America
“Speak softly and carry a big stick” Theodore Roosevelt believed U.S. should play active role in Western Hemisphere Monroe Doctrine (1823): warned Europe to stay out of Latin American affairs Roosevelt Corollary (1904): U.S. can intervene in Latin American affairs

11 U.S. Interests in Latin America
Dollar Diplomacy: policy of President Taft – influencing governments through economic intervention Moral Diplomacy: policy of President Wilson – promote democracy in Latin America, but use force if necessary Mexican Revolution: struggle for power U.S. invades Mexico to prevent weapons arriving from Europe and to capture rebel leader Pancho Villa

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