Puerto Rico Strategically importance: Provide military presence in the Caribbean Protect the planned canal in Panama
Ruling Puerto Rico Military Rule US occupied Puerto Rico during Spanish-American War. Led by General Nelson A. Miles To protect life an property of
Ruling Puerto Rico Foraker Act of 1900 Ended military rule Established a government Special powers of Foraker Act President of US appoints governor President of US appoints upper house of the legislation
Ruling Puerto Rico What does it mean to live in a territory? Insular cases of 1901 US Supreme Court ruled that the Constitution did not apply to in acquired territories Congress granted citizenship to Puerto Rican in 1917 Also allowed to elect both houses of legislature
Cuba and the United States American Soldiers After the war Cuba was occupied by US troops Military Government Provided food housing helped farmers set up elementary schools helped fight yellow fever
Cuba and the United States Jose Marti’s fear: Spanish control of Cuba would be replaced by US control US Policy Same officials remained in office People who protested policy were imprisoned of exiled.
Cuba and the United States 1900 Cuban government wrote a constitution for an independent Cuba Constitution didn’t specify relationship relationship btw US and Cuba US insisted Cuba adopt Platt Amendment US troops would not leave until they did. 1903 Cuba adopted amendment
Cuba and the United States Platt Amendment Cuban could not make treaties that might limit its independence or permit a foreign power to control any part of its territory The US reserved the right to intervene in Cuba Cuba was not to go into debt The US could buy or lease land on the island for naval stations and refueling station
Filipinos Rebel Filipinos believed US promised independence for the Philippines. Treaty of Paris called for American annexation of the Philippines Filipino rebel leader Emilio Aguinaldo vowed to fight for independence.
Filipinos Rebel Philippine-American War February 1899 revolt began Led by Aguinaldo Filipinos used guerilla tactics US forced Filipinos to live in designated zones Poor sanitation, starvation, and disease killed thousands. Death toll: 20,000 Filipinos 4,000 Americans
Filipinos Rebel Aftermath of the war US establishes a similar government as PR Philippines became an independent nation on July 4, 1946
Foreign Influence in China John Hay’s Open Door Notes John Hay: Secretary of State Letters to imperialist nations proposing they share trading rights with the US Prevented a nation from having monopoly trade
Foreign Influence in China Boxer Rebellion in China Secret group to rid china of “foreign devils” Boxers killed hundreds of missionaries and Chinese converts to Christianity 1900- Troops from imperialist countries marched on capital and put down the rebellion
Foreign Influence in China John Hay’s Open Door Notes part II Declared that US would safeguard for the world the principal of equal and impartial trade with all parts of the Chinese empire.”
Birth of American Foreign Policy open door policy reflected three beliefs of US industrial capitalist economy growth of economy depended on exports right to intervene abroad to keep foreign markets open closing of an area to American products, citizens, or ideas threatened US survival