2 Which belief was held by Southerners prior to the Civil War? A Voting rights should be extended to all citizens.B A constitutional amendment should be passed making slavery illegal.C High tariffs should be imposed on all goods to protect domestic companies.D The rights of states should be considered as important as the rights of the federal government.
3 Based on the excerpt, with which statement would Daniel Webster most likely agree? “I hold the idea of a separation of these States, those that arefree to form one government, and those that are slave-holdingto form another, as such an impossibility.”—excerpt from a speech given by Daniel Webster, March 7, 1850A Each state should determine whether to allow slavery.B States should be prohibited from forming a new country.C Each state should have the right to overturn federal laws.D States should receive rights from the federal government.
4 Which leader would most likely have disagreed with the ideas expressed in the excerpt? “. . . No State upon its own mere motion can lawfully get out of the Union; that resolves and [laws] to that effect are legally void, and that acts of violence within any State or States against the authority of the United States are insurrectionary or revolutionary.”—an excerpt from President Abraham Lincoln’s inaugural address, March 1861A Daniel WebsterB John C. CalhounC Ulysses S. GrantD Frederick Douglass
5 Senator Stephen Douglas sparked new problems between the North and South in the 1850s when he sponsored theA Dred Scott Decision.B Compromise of 1850.C Kansas-Nebraska Act.D Emancipation Proclamation.
6 Which statement describes the Supreme Court’s decision in Dred Scott v Which statement describes the Supreme Court’s decision in Dred Scott v. Sanford?A Slaves could not bring lawsuits in court.B Escaped slaves were not allowed citizenship.C Slavery was a matter to be decided by Southern states.D Any slave that escaped to the North should be considered free.
7 Which statement is best supported by the map? A The United States was strongly divided politically by region.B The West held the greatest number of electoral votes.C The South provided the most support for Lincoln.D The United States strongly supported Douglas.
8 Which group would most likely have supported the Kansas-Nebraska Act? A abolitionistsB industrialistsC cattle ranchersD plantation owners
9 Which historical figure led the Union to victory in the Civil War? A Robert E. LeeB Ulysses S. GrantC Stephen DouglasD Stonewall Jackson
10 Which statement about the life of Frederick Douglass is true? A He was born a free man.B He published an abolitionist newspaper.C He received little attention during his lifetime.D He was trained as a military leader in the army.
11 Which historical figure made this statement? “No state upon its own mere motion can lawfully get out of the Union I shall take care that the laws of the Union be faithfully executed in all the States In doing this there needs to be no bloodshed or violence, and there shall be none unless it be forced upon the national authority In your hands, my dissatisfied fellow-countrymen, and not in mine, is the momentous issue of civil war. The Government will not [attack] you. You can have no conflict without being yourselves the aggressors. You have no oath registered in heaven to destroy the Government, while I shall have the most solemn one to ‘preserve, protect, and defend it.’ ”Which historical figure made this statement?A Robert E. LeeB Jefferson DavisC Ulysses S. GrantD Abraham Lincoln
12 According to this timeline, what can be concluded about President Andrew Johnson’s relationship with Congress?A President Johnson and Congress held the same views regarding citizens’ rights.B President Johnson and Congress tried to use their separate powers to obstruct the other’s goals.C At first, President Johnson and Congress were in opposition, then they used the Supreme Court to resolve conflicts.D At first, President Johnson and Congress were in opposition, but soon Congress came to agree with the view of President Johnson.
13 Which event marks the beginning of the Civil War? A the siege of VicksburgB the attack on Fort SumterC the election of Abraham LincolnD the signing of the Emancipation Proclamation
14 Which statement describes an important effort of the Union victory at Vicksburg? A It caused Arkansas and Louisiana to rejoin the Union.B Union control of the Mississippi River split the Confederacy.C It led directly to the surrender of the Confederacy at Appomattox.D Union forces were able to move men and supplies into Alabama and Georgia.
15 Which statement best describes what the Battle of Gettysburg represents? • Site of the largest battle of the Civil War• Fought over three days in 1863• Union casualties: 23,000; Confederate casualties: 28,000• Stopped the invasion of the North by Robert E. Lee’s “Army of Northern Virginia”A the final event of the Civil War B a major turning point in the Civil War C the lack of support the North gave the war D a financial burden on both the North and the South
16 What is the purpose of the 15th Amendment? A to protect African Americans from slaveryB to protect the right of African Americans to voteC to allow United States citizens to vote in other countriesD to make it easier for immigrants to become United States citizens
17 What is the main purpose of the 13th Amendment? Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.—from the 13th Amendment to theU.S. ConstitutionA Citizens cannot be denied the right to vote.B Citizens cannot be forced to serve on a jury.C Citizens cannot be denied the right to free speech.D Citizens cannot be forced to work for someone else.
18 Which event resulted directly from the signing of the Emancipation Proclamation? A the seizure of Union fundsB the surrender of the ConfederacyC the passage of the Thirteenth AmendmentD the election of Abraham Lincoln as president
19 The 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments to the Constitution all A enacted limits on presidential powers.B increased legal protections for African Americans.C nullified certain provisions of previous amendments.D extended voting rights to different groups of United States citizens.
20 Which Supreme Court decision ruled in favor of racial segregation under the “separate but equal” clause?A Plessy v. FergusonB Dred Scott v. SanfordC University of California Regents v. BakkeD Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas
21 What is the main purpose of this section of the amendment? All persons born or naturalized in the United States arecitizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States.—14th Amendment, Section 1A to prohibit racial discriminationB to increase the political rights of womenC to assist the efforts of settlers in the westD to guarantee the civil rights of immigrants
22 Based on the excerpts, it can be concluded that the codes were meant If any apprentice shall leave the employment of his or her master or mistress without his or her consent, said master or mistress may pursue and recapture said apprentice and bring him or her before any justice of the peace of the county, whose duty it shall be to remand [return] said apprentice to the service of his or hermaster or mistress.All freedmen over the age of eighteen years found With no lawful employment or business, or found unlawfully assembling themselves together either in the day or nighttime, and all white persons associating with freedmen on terms of equality shall be deemed vagrants; and, on conviction thereof, shall be fined and imprisoned.—Mississippi Black Codes, 1865A to force the newly freed slaves to migrate North.B to help former slaves adjust to their new status as free people.C to continue the economic and social restrictions previously placed on slaves.D to use the freedmen to aid in the economic and political revival of the South.
23 How did Chinese and Irish immigrants in the mid-1800s contribute to the development of a transcontinental railroad system?A by funding its construction and maintenanceB by providing low cost laborers for its constructionC by lobbying legislators for approval of its constructionD by granting permission for its construction on privately owned land
24 Which statement is true about immigrants to the United States in the late 1800s? A They settled mainly in rural areas.B They came mostly from Africa and Asia.C They were drafted to fight in the Civil War.D They helped industrialize the national economy.
25 Which conclusion can be drawn from this information? A Some Irish immigrants became influential in the business world. B Irish immigrants rarely had any interaction with other ethnic groups. C Some Irish immigrants became important figures in their communities. D Irish immigrants impacted only the lives of the people living in urban areas.
26 Why did the United States begin to use quota laws for immigration in the early 1900s? A to allow only middle class European immigrants to enter the United StatesB to allow only ten percent of any ethnic group to immigrate to the United StatesC to allow only healthy immigrants who could speak fluent English into the United StatesD to allow only a certain number of immigrants with a given ethnic background into the United States
27 Which best explains trends in European immigration to the United States after 1910? A Prosperity in the United States encouraged many Europeans to emigrate.B The United States government set quotas in order to restrict the number of immigrants.C Economic prosperity in Europe meant that few people left Europe for the United States.D The industrialization of the United States economy failed to attract European farmers.
28 Which statement was most likely the reason for passing the Act? Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That The coming of Chinese laborers to the United States be suspended; and during such suspension it shall not be lawful for any Chinese laborer to come [and] to remain within the United States.—Chinese Exclusion Act, May 1882A The cities on the West Coast could not keep up with the growing population rate. B American workers on the West Coast saw the Chinese as competitors for their jobs. C Immigration was restricted from Asia because of an oversupply of labor. D The Chinese were becoming United States citizens at a higher rate than other immigrants.
29 How did the spread of the factory system in the United States affect immigration? A Many immigrants were settling in rural areas.B Limited immigration caused wages to increase.C Immigration decreased due to a surplus of workers.D Large numbers of immigrants provided a cheap labor supply.
30 Which statement is true about immigrants to the United States in the late 1800s? A Most immigrants settled in rural areas.B Immigrants enjoyed equal opportunity with other Americans.C Immigrants provided labor that allowed the nation to industrialize.D Most immigrants possessed wealth that allowed them to start businesses.
31 Which event contributed most to the immigration trend shown in the graph? A the abolition of slavery B the need for skilled workers C the growth of family-owned farms D the development of large-scale production
32 Which statement is true about the Dawes Act of 1887? A It forced Native Americans to move north.B It redistributed Native American land into individual plots.C It allowed Native Americans to reclaim land they previously owned.D It required Native Americans to pay taxes to the federal government.
33 How did the federal government, as shown by the Dawes Act, impact Native American groups? An act to provide for the allotment of lands [individual and separate ownership] to Indians on the various reservations, and to extend the protection of laws of the United States and the Territories over the Indians. .Be it enacted by [Congress] that in all cases where any tribe or band of Indians has been located upon any reservation created for their use the President of the United States Is authorized whenever in his opinion any reservation or any part thereof of such Indians is advantageous for agricultural and grazing purposes to allot the lands as follows:To each head of a family, one-quarter of a section—excerpt from the Dawes Act, 1887A The federal government altered their way of life.B The federal government increased their political sovereignty.C The federal government increased their economic independence.D The federal government expanded their right to regain tribal lands.
34 Based on these photographs, which phrase best describes a main objective of the school? A to train Native Americans to become tribal leadersB to help Native Americans become United States citizensC to assist Native Americans in adjusting to reservation lifeD to persuade Native Americans to accept the dominant American culture
35 Based on the maps, which statement can best be concluded about Native Americans in the late 1800s? A They were given back much of the land previously taken from them.B They were forced to give up some of their land as settlers moved west.C They were required to absorb into society by moving away from reservations.D They were encouraged to combine their territories into one centralized reservation.
36 Which invention contributed directly to the end of the Pony Express? A radioB telegraphC clipper shipD steam engine
37 Which phrase describes an immediate result of new production methods used during the industrialization of the late 1800s?A an increase in the cost of goodsB an increase in demand for unskilled workersC an increase in the amount workers were paidD an increase in the amount of time to build products
38 Which is the main reason for the percent change in agricultural jobs as shown in the graphs? A substantial changes in European farm productsB immigration restrictions that favored EuropeansC significant shifts in the demands for farm productsD increased farm productivity accompanied by industrial growth
39 What federal act was prompted by Upton Sinclair’s book, The Jungle? A the 16th AmendmentB the Underwood TariffC the Meat Inspection ActD the Clayton Anti-Trust Act
40 Which action had the greatest effect on the passage of these acts? A lawsuits by consumers regarding the actions of businessesB actions of social reformers that led to increased public awareness of social problemsC pressure from foreign trading partners over the safety of United States productsD government concern that a lack of consumer confidence would harm the United States economy
41 Which group would share President Roosevelt’s opinion? “The tremendous and highly complex industrial development which went on during the latter half of the nineteenth century brings us face to face at the beginning of the twentieth century with very serious social problems. The old laws, and the old customs are no longer sufficient.”—President Theodore Roosevelt, 1901A muckrakersB isolationistsC expansionistsD carpetbaggers
42 Which Progressive Era reform affected elections at the federal level? A initiativeB recall lawsC 17th AmendmentD 18th Amendment
43 The reforms in the table are designed A to allow voters to repeal state and federal laws.B to make elected officials more responsive to citizens.C to reduce restrictions on the actions of elected officials.D to prohibit minority candidates from running for political office.
44 What is the best conclusion from the information in the chart? A The reforms will make government more democratic.B The reforms will increase the power of state legislatures.C The reforms will reduce restrictions on the actions of elected officials.D The reforms will prohibit minority candidates from running for political office.
45 What was the goal of the United States during the Age of Imperialism? A to dominate other nationsB to acquire foreign marketsC to remain isolated from other powersD to remain neutral in overseas conflicts
46 These quotations are arguments for and against the “Despite a superior geographical location, the United States is unready to assert its influence Whether they will or not, Americans must now begin to look outward. The growing production of the country demands it.”—Admiral Alfred T. Mahan, 1890The United States have always protested international law which permits the [domination] of the weak by the strong. A self-governing state cannot accept sovereignty over an unwilling people.—the American Anti-Imperialist League, 1890sThese quotations are arguments for and against theA formation of a league of nations to prevent future wars.B expansion of United States political and economic power abroad.C restriction of immigrants to protect the jobs of domestic workers.D creation of a United States agency to provide relief for natural disaster victims.
47 Which event was most likely a major point of disagreement between the authors? A the declaration of war on Germany B the organization of a league of nations C the annexation of the Hawaiian Islands D the abolition of slavery around the world
48 After which war did the United States first emerge as an imperialistic world power? A Civil WarB World War IC World War IID Spanish-American War
49 Which statement explains an immediate effect of the Spanish-American War on the United States? A The United States gained Southwestern territory from Mexico.B The United States developed a policy of containment to stop the spread of communism.C The United States was given control over territories in the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea.D The United States experienced a deep economic depression as production of military goods slowed.
50 What happened as a result of the Spanish-American War? A The United States rose to prominence as a global military power.B The United States established a military alliance with Spain to share governorship of its empire.C Spain retained control of its empire to halt the build up of global power by the United States.D United States citizens were so disillusioned by the outcome of the war that the nation retreated into isolationism.
51 Why did the United States want to build a canal across the Isthmus of Panama? A to maintain its isolationist goal to protect U.S. watersB to promote its military goals and conquer Latin American nationsC to support its imperialistic goals of expanding U.S. security and prosperityD to help its humanitarian goals by opening a route to send aid to Latin America and Asia
52 Which topic caused the debate in Congress described in the quotation? “I took the [Panama] Canal Zone and let Congress debate; and while the debate goes on the canal does also.”—President Theodore Roosevelt, 1911A the financial cost of acquiring the canal zone areaB the amount of foreign labor used in constructing the canalC the engineering difficulties faced during the construction of the canalD the aggressive tactics used in securing the land for the canal zone area
53 Which statement best describes how the building of the Panama Canal and the transcontinental railroad were similar?A They were built outside the United States.B They united regions that had been previously separated.C They were built in areas where yellow fever was widespread.D They expanded the amount of land controlled by the United States.
54 What was the purpose of President Theodore Roosevelt’s “Big Stick Diplomacy”? A the loaning of military technology to United States alliesB the exercise of international police power by the United StatesC the use of economic sanctions against enemies of the United StatesD the withdrawal of the United States from international organizations
55 A weakness of Roosevelt’s “Big Stick Diplomacy” was that A the United States became responsible for the creation of the Panama Canal.B the United States prevented European intervention in the Western Hemisphere.C United States citizens were prohibited from purchasing products from European countries.D United States military forces became responsible for enforcing foreign policy in Central America.
56 How did Theodore Roosevelt’s “Big Stick Diplomacy” affect feelings about the United States throughout Latin America?A Latin American nations were grateful to have the powerful United States supporting them. B Nations of Latin America were resentful of United States interference in their affairs from the outset. C Latin American nations were neutral at first, but then grew increasingly resentful toward the United States. D Nations of Latin America were suspicious at first, but then became so appreciative that they did not mind United States interference.
57 How did United States involvement in World War I affect some Americans? A Many women entered the workforce.B Many children left school to work in factories.C African Americans migrated to Southern cities.D Unemployment caused the United States economy to suffer.
58 Which quotation from President Woodrow Wilson’s 1917 declaration of war against Germany is a statement of fact instead of opinion?A “It is a fearful thing to lead this great peaceful people into war. .” B “The present German submarine warfare against commerce is a warfare against mankind.” C “On the third day of February last I officially laid before you the extraordinary announcement of the Imperial German Government “ D “I have said nothing of the government allied with the Imperial Government of Germany because they have not made war upon us “
59 Which action by the United States government was influenced by this statement? The Zimmermann Note On the first of February we intend to begin submarine warfare unrestricted. In spite of this, it is our intention to endeavor to keep neutral the United States of America.If this attempt is not successful, we propose an alliance on the following basis with Mexico: That we shall make war together and together make peace. We shall give general financialsupport, and it is understood that Mexico is to reconquer the lost territory in New Mexico, Texas, and Arizona.—Arthur Zimmermann, German Ambassador to MexicoA declaration of war against GermanyB expanded military intervention in EuropeC expanded intervention in Latin American affairsD protection of United States interests in the Philippines
60 In the election of 1920, President Harding won by a landslide In the election of 1920, President Harding won by a landslide. Based on his speech, after World War I, the American people were most likely inclined“America’s present need is not heroics, but healing; not nostrums [ineffective remedies], but normalcy; not revolution, but restoration; not agitation, but adjustment; not surgery, but serenity; not the dramatic, but the dispassionate; Not submergence in internationality, but sustainment in triumphant nationality.”—Warren G. Harding, 1920 campaign speechA to encourage toleration of radical political activities.B to endorse the reduction in arms to avoid a naval arms race.C to support the continuation of the reforms of the Progressive Era.D to send relief aid to Germany and other countries devastated in the war.
61 Why did the United States retreat into isolationism after World War I? A The United States wanted to focus on Progressive reforms.B Congress wanted the United States to end trade with other nations.C United States citizens were disillusioned about the outcome of the war.D The United States had failed to meet its goal to obtain new territory during the war.
62 The League of Nations served as a model for the United Nations, which was formed after World War II. What does the timing of the creation of these two organizations suggest?A Involvement in wars can cause nations to realize the value of peace organizations.B Domestic problems interfere with nations joining international organizations.C Defeated countries are usually forced to join international organizations.D Involvement in wars can cause nations to reject membership in peace organizations.
63 According to the excerpt, which issue became the underlying reason for the United States’ failure to join the League of Nations?The Members of the League undertake to respect and preserve as against external aggression the territorial integrity and existing political independence of all Members of the League. In case of any such aggression or in case of any threat or danger of such aggression the Council shall advise upon the means by which this obligation shall be fulfilled.—excerpt from the Covenant of the League of Nations, 1924A the lack of support from the general publicB the high cost of maintaining an armed forceC the fear of being dragged into another European warD the belief that the other League members were too weak
64 Which definition best describes a flapper of the 1920s? A a female supporter of civil rightsB a female supporter of voting rightsC a female supporter of social freedomsD a female supporter of employment rights
65 What influence did the Harlem Renaissance have on American society in the 1920s? A The Harlem Renaissance led to renewed efforts to improve living conditions in urban areas.B The Harlem Renaissance resulted in increased numbers of new political parties being formed.C The Harlem Renaissance increased the recognition of the art and music of African American artists.D The Harlem Renaissance increased the number of European immigrants moving to cities in the North.
66 Based on this information, movie theaters prospered in the 1930s because A most people were now fully employed. B movies captured the serious issues of the Depression. C movies offered people a temporary escape from their problems. D most of the country had recovered from the effects of the Depression.
67 Which amendment to the United States Constitution ended the era of Prohibition? A Amendment 18 B Amendment 19 C Amendment 20 D Amendment 21
68 A long-term effect of Progressive Era reform movements was that A citizens were prohibited from joining unions.B the government acquired new territories in the Pacific.C the government prevented the growth of new industries.D citizens were granted more rights under the Constitution.
69 According to these quotations, LaGuardia and Peabody agreed that “The conditions where there is no State enforcement law, which is required by the eighteenth amendment are bad. The only remedy, it seems to us, as women, is not a change of law which is satisfactory to the majority of the States, but to do what the Constitution requires to make the law enforceable. Perhaps we as women, not being in the position to select men who should administer these laws trusted too much and needed the awakening which has come.”—testimony of Mrs. Henry W. Peabody before the United StatesSenate, President of the Women’s NationalCommittee for Law Enforcement, 1926A prohibition led to a better standard of living. B prohibition led to an increase in illegal activity. C prohibition laws were not being strictly enforced. D prohibition of alcohol sales should be kept in place.
70 Which invention had the greatest impact on the economy of the 1920s? A radioB televisionC telephoneD automobile
71 Which factor is associated with the development of the assembly line? A decreased availability of consumer goodsB decreased costs of manufactured goodsC increased demand for skilled laborD increased wages for farm workers
72 Which statement best explains the trend shown on this graph? A Many people began to use public transportation during the 1920s.B People became less dependent on government programs during the 1920s.C The economic changes during the 1920s resulted in an overall decrease in purchasing power.D The popularity of installment buying during the 1920s resulted in more people being able to buy luxury items.
73 After World War I ended, many strikes began to take place across the United States. Which purpose best describes the main goal of these strikes?A to protest children being allowed to work in factoriesB to discourage other workers from joining labor unionsC to force companies to allow women to keep their jobsD to demand higher wages and better working conditions
74 Which statement describes one way sit-down strikes helped workers obtain their demands? A Strikers were able to decrease their dependency on labor unions.B Management could not bring in police officers to remove the strikers.C Management could not bring in outside workers to take the jobs of the strikers.D Strikers were able to continue working at the factory as long as the strike continued.
75 What does the riot in Tulsa, Oklahoma, in reveal about United States society during that time period?A There was a wave of sentiment against immigrants.B There were rising racial tensions in some parts of the nation.C Workers were demanding more benefits and shorter work hours.D Violence against management by unions was becoming commonplace.
76 How did consumer behavior change following World War I? A Consumers became more willing to buy on credit.B Consumers had less access to household goods.C Consumers became more likely to save money.D Consumers paid less attention to advertising.
77 Which of these best completes the diagram? A Secure banking systemB Increased foreign tradeC Stock market speculationsD Increased government regulations
78 Which historical figure most likely made this statement? “Economic depression cannot be cured by legislative action or executive pronouncement. Economic wounds must be healed by the action of the cells of the economic body—the producers and consumers themselves.”A Woody GuthrieB Herbert HooverC Charles LindberghD Franklin Delano Roosevelt
79 What part of the economy was the weakest during the 1920s? A farmingB manufacturingC consumer goodsD service industries
80 Which factor contributed to the trend shown on this graph? A low demand for stocksB buying of stocks on marginC low confidence in the stock marketD strict government regulation of the stock market
81 Which factor most likely contributed to the downturn in the business cycle prior to the Stock Market Crash of 1929?A overproduction of goodsB shortage of skilled laborersC increased purchasing power of consumersD introduction of new timesaving household goods
82 Which phrase describes one effect of the Stock Market Crash of 1929? A repayment of war debtsB increased industrial outputC widespread unemploymentD growth in consumer demand
83 Which reason best explains why many companies failed after the Stock Market Crash of 1929? A Prices for company stocks were too high.B Companies were unable to hire enough workers.C Production could not keep up with the demand for goods.D Consumer money shortages led to a decline in purchases.
84 Which statement explains the situation reflected in the chart? A The price of stocks began to decrease before September of B Investors stopped buying stocks between August and September. C Investors who feared stock prices would decline began to sell their shares. D The companies listed on the chart abruptly stopped offering shares of stock.
85 What effect did New Deal policies have upon banking and business? A greater market freedomB fewer market incentivesC more government regulationD complete government control
86 President Roosevelt’s view led directly to which action? “. . . I shall not evade the clear course of duty that will then confront me. I shall ask the Congress for the one remaining instrument to meet the crisis—broad executive power to wage a war against the emergency, as great as the power that would be given to me if we were in fact to be invaded by a foreign foe.”—President Franklin D. Roosevelt,First Inaugural Address,1933A the passage of new banking laws B the United States joining the United Nations C the United States becoming involved in World War II D the increased use of the military to address social problems
87 The information in this chart supports the conclusion that the New Deal A created programs that were stop-gap economic measures.B established a new role for the government in the economy.C failed to solve the problems created by the Great Depression.D recommitted the nation to the principals of laissez faire economics.
88 Why was the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation created? A to protect government loans to farmersB to protect people’s retirement pensionsC to protect corporations from bankruptcyD to protect money in people’s bank accounts
89 New Deal programs helped the economy by A raising the costs of goods and services.B offering volunteer work to women and children.C creating more competition between the workers.D lowering the jobless rate and stimulating business activity.
90 __________________________________ What do these quotations illustrate about the shift in the role of government during this period?Statements Regarding Relief for the Unemployed During the Depression “I hold that the proper separation of functions of the Federal and local governments requires the maintenance of the fundamental principle that the obligation of distress [hardship] rests upon the individuals, upon the communities and upon the states.”—President Herbert Hoover, 1932__________________________________“Relief funds will be expended on behalf of rural families in a manner and to an extent that will enable them to achieve self-support The needy unemployed living in cities and towns should receive adequate assurance of means to maintain themselves The Federal Government has no intention or desire to force either upon the country or the unemployed themselves a system of relief which is repugnant [offensive] to American ideals of individual self-reliance Labor on [work programs] will be confined to those needy unemployed who can give adequate return for the unemployment benefits which they receive.”—President Franklin Roosevelt, 1934A The federal government provided generous cash benefits to citizens.B The federal government began to play a greater role in meeting the basic needs of individuals.C State governments became more powerful by setting up relief programs for the unemployed.D Local governments became less dependent on state and federal governments for relief assistance.
91 A teach traditional skills to women. According to this information, Mrs. Roosevelt hoped that the National Youth Administration wouldDuring the Great Depression, Eleanor Roosevelt helped establish the National Youth Administration, which helped high school and college students stay in school by giving them funds in exchange for work. The NYA also found work for others who were not in school, but unemployed.Stated Mrs. Roosevelt, “It is a question of the right to work, andthe right to work should know no color lines.”A teach traditional skills to women.B require all young people to stay in school.C offer the unemployed a college education.D provide equal opportunities for young people.
92 Based on this information, what was a goal of Eleanor Roosevelt? Some Information About Eleanor Roosevelt• Member of the National Consumers’ League• Member of the National Association for the Advancement f Colored People• Chair of the United Nations Human Rights Commission• Chair of the National Commission on the Status of WomenA promotion of social reformB revision of immigration lawsC conservation of natural resourcesD reform of the political party system
93 Which act was Franklin Roosevelt signing when he made this speech? A Social Security ActB National Housing ActC Fair Labor Standards ActD National Industrial Recovery Act
94 Which action by the United States demonstrates its policy of isolationism before World War II? A enactment of a peacetime draft law B passage of a series of neutrality acts C placement of an embargo on exports to Japan D deportation of American Communist Party members
95 __________________________________________________ Based on these quotations, what was one issue in the debate over United States involvement in World War II?“We have weakened ourselves for many months, and still worse, we have divided our own people by dabbling in Europe’s wars. While we should have been concentrating on American defense, we have been forced to argue over foreign quarrels.”—Charles Lindbergh, a member of America First CommitteeApril 23, 1941__________________________________________________“If we are to retain our own freedom, we must do everything within our power to aid Britain we cannot live in the world alone, without friends and without allies We would be alone in the world, facing an unscrupulous military economic bloc that would dominate all of Europe, all of Africa, most of Asia, and perhaps even Russia and South America.”—Harold Ickes, Secretary of the Interior, May 18, 1941A concern that the United States would be unsuccessfulB uncertainty as to whether assistance from the United States was wanted by other nationsC difference of opinions as to whether the interests of the United States were at risk because of the warD disagreements over whether United States troops should be removed from other areas in order to assist in Europe
96 In the 1930s, those who agreed with Hiram Johnson would most likely have wanted the United States “We ask only to live our own life in our own way, in friendship and sympathy with all, in alliance with none.”—Senator Hiram W. Johnson, 1922A to pursue imperialist interests abroad.B to adopt a foreign policy of isolationism.C to become a member of the League of Nations.D to offer military assistance to its World War I allies.
97 Which statement accurately reflects what happened to Japanese Americans as a result of internment during World War II?A Many Japanese Americans lost their businesses and homes.B Most Japanese Americans served in U.S. armed services during the war.C Many Japanese Americans were forced to return home after the war ended.D Most Japanese Americans were released after they signed an oath of loyalty to the U.S. government.
98 What action by the United States government was declared constitutional by the Supreme Court in 1944?Exclusion of those of Japanese origin was deemed necessary We uphold the exclusion order Hardships are part of war [and] we are at war with the Japanese Empire The military urgency of the situation demanded that all citizens of Japanese ancestry be segregated from the West Coast temporarily—Korematsu v. United States, 1944A requiring Japanese Americans to return to JapanB forcing Japanese Americans into internment campsC forbidding acts of discrimination against Japanese immigrantsD restricting the number of Japanese immigrants to the United States
99 Which event was most responsible for this situation? A Japan’s attack on Pearl HarborB Japan’s occupation of IndochinaC Japanese Americans refusing to join the militaryD Japanese Americans committing acts of sabotage
100 Why was the Battle of Midway an important military turning point in World War II? A It led to the immediate surrender of Japan.B It forced German troops to retreat from France.C It stopped Japanese dominance of lands in the Pacific Ocean.D It showed nations involved in the war that United States forces were invincible.
101 The strategy of “island-hopping” in the Pacific theater involved A recapturing all Japanese islands and territories.B seizing key islands to close in on the Japanese mainland.C bypassing smaller Pacific islands to attack Japan directly.D launching all attacks against Japan from the Pearl Harbor military base.
102 What event is being described in General Eisenhower’s message to the Allied forces? “You are about to embark upon the Great Crusade, toward which we have striven these many months. The eyes of the world are upon you you will bring about the destruction of the German war machine, the elimination of Nazi tyranny over the oppressed peoples of Europe, and security for ourselves in a free world.Your task will not be an easy one. Your enemy will fight savagely. But this is the year 1944! The tide has turned! The free men of the world are marching together to Victory!”—from General Dwight D. Eisenhower's Order of the Day, 1944A the Battle of MidwayB the Battle of the BulgeC the bombing of HiroshimaD the D-Day invasion of Europe
103 Newspapers in the United States reported Nazi atrocities against European Jews as early as Which response describes the reaction of the general public to these reports?A suggestions for covert operations against concentration campsB support for economic sanctions against GermanyC demand for immediate military action in EuropeD denial that such reports could be true
104 Regarding early reports of the Holocaust during World War II, the immediate response by President Roosevelt and the United States government wasA to focus on winning the war as quickly as possible.B to allow greater numbers of refugees into the United States.C to notify the public of the reports of German actions against Jews.D to begin taking steps to invade concentration camps to free those held there.
105 What was the prosecutor accusing the defendants of doing? “The defendants in this case are charged with murders, tortures, and other atrocities committed in the name of medical science. The victims of these crimes are numbered in the hundreds of thousands. A handful only are still alive; a few of the survivors will appear in this courtroom. But most of these miserable victims were slaughtered outright or died during the tortures to which they were subjected.”—from Prosecution’s Opening Statement Against All Defendants,Nuremberg Medical Trials, December 9, 1946A fighting against the Allies while in the German Army B helping the Allies while the war was going on in Europe C committing crimes against humanity during the Holocaust D inventing weapons that were used against the United States
106 How did the West break the Soviet blockade of Berlin in June 1948? A by invading East GermanyB by forming the NATO allianceC by imposing economic sanctionsD by conducting an airlift of supplies
107 Which situation is related to this excerpt? “It is my duty to place before you certain facts about the present position in Europe ”“From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe in what I must call the Soviet sphere, and all aresubject in one form or another, not only to Soviet influence, but to a very high and, in some cases, increasing measure of control from Moscow ”—Winston Churchill, former Prime Minister of England, 1946A the beginning of the Cold WarB the founding of communism in RussiaC the political division of Europe after World War ID the efforts by the United States to gain influence in Asia
108 What was a primary goal of the program George Marshall described? “Europe’s requirements for the next three or four years of foreign food and other essential products—principally from America—are so much greater than her present ability to pay that she must have substantial additional help or face economic, social, and political [decline] of a very grave character.”—Secretary of State George Marshall, 1947A to repay loans made by the United StatesB to stop the spread of communism in EuropeC to take over western European governmentsD to help the Soviet Union rebuild its military strength
109 Which foreign policy action was a commitment by the United States to contain communism? A the Kennan PactB the Berlin BlockadeC the Truman DoctrineD the Yalta Agreement
110 The events on this timeline reflect a United States foreign policy of A neutrality.B retaliation.C containment.D appeasement.
111 The events on the timeline are most likely a result of efforts by the United States A to expand its Asian territories. B to limit its role in world affairs. C to halt the spread of communism. D to reduce tensions with Germany.
112 How did the Truman Doctrine support the United States’ policy of containment? I believe that we must assist free peoples to work out their own destinies in their own way If Greece should fall under the control of an armed minority, the effect upon its neighbor, Turkey, would be immediate and serious.—excerpt from the Truman Doctrine, 1947A The Truman Doctrine encouraged trade between Greece and communist nations. B The Truman doctrine halted the expansion of communism into Greece and Turkey. C The Truman doctrine allowed citizens of Turkey refugee status in the United States. D The Truman Doctrine forced Greece and Turkey to sign treaties with the United States.
113 Which policy or action taken by the United States reflects the foreign policy view stated in this excerpt?[The United States must apply] “counterforce at every point where the Soviets show signs of encroaching upon the interests of a peaceful and stable world.”—George Kennan, U. S. Diplomat, 1947A sending troops to KoreaB opening trade with ChinaC remaining out of foreign conflictsD lending materials to allies in times of war
114 Four years after his speech, Senator McCarthy was “In my opinion the State Department is thoroughly infestedwith communists. I have here in my hand a list of names that were made known to the Secretary of State as being members of the Communist Party and who nevertheless are still working and shaping policy in the State Department.”—from a speech made by United StatesSenator Joseph McCarthy, 1950A condemned by the Senate for his conduct.B facing charges of working for the Communist Party.C praised by the President for his investigations of communism.D leading the race to become the Republican candidate for President.
115 What was the purpose of the speech made by Senator McCarthy? “In my opinion the State Department is thoroughly infestedwith communists. I have here in my hand a list of names that were made known to the Secretary of State as being members of the Communist Party and who nevertheless are still working and shaping policy in the State Department.”—from a speech made by United StatesSenator Joseph McCarthy, 1950A to defend the right of government workers to criticize the federalgovernmentB to praise State Department employees for their work in preservingdemocracyC to create fear that communists were making government decisionsD to condemn those who opposed the right to join the Communist Party
116 Which statement best describes the viewpoint of the author? In the 1950s, Senator Joseph McCarthy (R-Wisconsin) made unsubstantiated [unsupported] claims that the State Department and other areas had been infiltrated [entered for purposes of spying] by communist activity. His accusations started a wave of anti-Communist hysteria and ruined careers of many people, particularly those in the film industry. The word “McCarthyism” was coined to describe the practice of accusing people of political disloyalty with insufficient evidence.A The author condemns Senator McCarthy without providing reasons for doing so. B The author believes Senator McCarthy had no basis on which to make his claims. C The author considers Senator McCarthy an important defender of the government. D The author suggests that Senator McCarthy was working in the film industry.
117 Based on President Kennedy’s address, what was the purpose of the Alliance for Progress? “Political freedom must accompany material progress. Our Alliance for Progress is an alliance of free governments, and it must work to eliminate tyranny from a hemisphere in which it has no rightful place political freedom must be accompanied by social change. For unless necessary social reforms, are freely made then our alliance, our revolution, our dream, and our freedom will fail Our motto is what it has always been—progress yes, tyranny no—progreso si, tirania no!”—President John F. Kennedy, March 13, 1961A to give Latin America a reason to continue a two-class societyB to ask Latin American nations to overthrow Fidel Castro in CubaC to promote cultural exchanges among all the nations of LatinAmericaD to give aid to Latin American nations to prevent communisttakeovers
118 Which sentence best explains why Truman’s statement is most likely an opinion? “Communism is based on the belief that man is so weak and inadequate that he is unable to govern himself, and therefore requires the rule of strong masters.”—Harry S. Truman, inaugural speech, 1949A He does not address the foundations of communism.B He offers no proof that his belief concerning communism is true.C He uses terms that suggest he is personally against communism.D He uses public fear of communism to add excitement to his words.
119 What was one reason that nuclear weapons were not used during the Cold War? A the Marshall PlanB the Domino TheoryC strategic defense initiativeD mutually assured destruction
120 In which year did an event occur that started the nuclear weapons race between the United States and the Soviet Union?ABCD
121 Which action occurred immediately after the signing of the Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT I) in 1972?A The United States disarmed its nuclear weapons.B Both countries began to develop new types of nuclear weapons.C Both countries decreased the costs of producing nuclear weapons.D The Soviet Union continued to increase its number of nuclear weapons.
122 Why did the United States play a role in the establishment of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)?A Political conditions in Europe threatened the United States and its allies.B United States efforts to provide humanitarian aid as an independent nation were failing.C The United States needed to borrow money to help the economy after the Great Depression.D The United States wanted to work with other nations to build canals in various parts of the world to improve international shipping.
123 Which phrase explains a goal of the United States in joining the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) in 1949?A to help rebuild countries ravaged by warB to reduce the number of nuclear weaponsC to protect Western Europe from communist aggressionD to increase trade between North America and communist nations
124 Why did the United States and other nations form NATO? A They wanted to offer military assistance to any nation threatened bycommunism.B They believed Germany would be intimidated into non-action by thisshow of force.C They agreed the best way to contain the Soviet Union was throughmutual defense.D They thought the best way to prevent communism was to help restore war-torn economies.
125 What was the main reason for student protests during the 1960s and 1970s? A the commitment of economic aid to EuropeB United States military involvement in VietnamC the commitment of economic aid to Latin AmericaD United States involvement in the Cuban Missile Crisis
126 The Vietnam War marked the first time when television cameras and reporters could truly capture the war effort. How did this new medium affect public opinion at home about the war?A Support fell because the government censored negative footage of the war.B Support rose after news programs selectively broadcasted United States victories.C Support fell as news broadcasts showed graphic shots of fighting and wounded soldiers.D Support rose because television reporters voiced their approval of United States involvement.
127 How did the events of this timeline lead to United States’ involvement in Vietnam? A The United States supported the Vietnamese in their struggle for anindependent country.B The Japanese drew the United States into their conflict with Vietnamduring World War II.C The United States backed France in an attempt to stop the spread ofcommunism to Southeast Asia.D The governments of Laos and Cambodia requested assistance fromthe United States in breaking away from Vietnam.
128 How did television aid the cause of the Civil Rights Movement? A Television broadcast trials of the civil rights opponents.B Television gave free air time to civil rights organizations.C Television presented disturbing images of the segregated South.D Television prevented segregationist politicians from broadcasting their message in the South.
129 Which statement describes a long-term result of the Civil Rights Movement on society? A State courts overturned federal laws they considered unjust.B Minorities played larger roles in state and federal politics.C Businesses offered workers guaranteed wage increases due to higher costs of living.D Government officials eliminated immigration quotas that discriminated against some ethnic groups.
130 Which conclusion can best be drawn from this map? A The Freedom Riders caused riots as they traveled.B Racial problems were greatest in the Northwest after 1961.C The number of race riots decreased in the West after 1966.D Racial problems occurred in more than one region of the United States.
131 Which conclusion can be reached from these court decisions? We think the enforced separation of the races neither abridges the privileges of the colored man, deprives him of his property without due process of law, nor denies him the equal protection of the laws.—Plessy v. Ferguson, 1896__________________________________We conclude that, in the field of public education, the doctrine of “separate but equal” has no place. Separate educational facilities are inherently unequal.—Brown v. Board of Education, 1954A Both court decisions received wide public support throughout the country.B Both courts supported a strict interpretation of civil rights amendments.C The Supreme Court has shifted its focus to ensure the civil rights of individuals.D The Supreme Court has continued to maintain a consistent viewpoint over the years.
132 With which group is Betty Friedan associated? A National Rifle Association (NRA) B Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD) C National Organization for Women (NOW) D Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)
133 What was one result of the women’s rights movement of the 1970s? A Women received the right to vote.B Women received salaries equal to men.C More women went to work outside the home.D More women decided to get married at a younger age.
134 According to its supporters, what would the failed Equal Rights Amendment have accomplished? A It would have provided quotas for the number of congressional seats held by women.B It would have protected women from unfair treatment in the workplace.C It would have abolished the traditional institution of marriage.D It would have eliminated restrictions on minority voting rights.
135 How have women made the greatest gains toward equality with men in the workplace since the 1950s? A by joining labor unionsB by pursuing legal actionsC by forming letter writing campaignsD by supporting an equal rights amendment
136 Which event focused attention on the powers of the Executive Branch and brought demands for reform? A Helsinki AccordsB Watergate investigationC President Nixon’s reelectionD Ratification of the 26th Amendment
137 In the 1968 United States presidential election, third-party candidate George Wallace received about thirteen percent of the popular vote. Which statement is the reason for this situation?A Candidates from the main parties held extremist views.B The third party addressed issues rejected by the main parties.C Efforts by the main parties encouraged people to study the platforms of all political candidates.D The new election laws made it easier for candidates from third parties to become known to voters.
138 Which action was a result of the events described in this article? A Congress enacted laws to prevent future abuses of presidential power.B The Secretary of Defense was made a member of the presidential cabinet.C Presidential candidates were required to keep records of campaign contributions.D The Supreme Court ruled that a president can serve a maximum of two terms.
139 How did the Presidential election of 1968 represent a change from previous voting patterns? A The American Independent Party gained nationwide support. B Democrats won the traditionally conservative “middle America.” C The Republicans carried the New England states for the first time since the Civil War. D Nixon used a “Southern Strategy” to make gains into the traditionally Democratic South.
140 How did the Watergate scandal and President Nixon’s resignation affect many Americans? A Many Americans doubted the effectiveness of the Constitution.B Many Americans concluded that elected officials could violate the Constitution.C Many Americans became increasingly distrustful about government officials and politics.D Many Americans believed that the system of checks and balances failed to prevent abuses.
141 Which amendment to the Constitution limits the number of terms held by the President of the United States?A 19th Amendment B 20th Amendment C 21st Amendment D 22nd Amendment
142 A goal behind the passage of the 25th Amendment was Section 1. In the case of the removal of the President from office the Vice President shall become President.Section 2. Whenever there is a vacancy in the office of Vice President, the President shall nominate a Vice President.Section 3. Whenever the President transmits his written declaration that he is unable to charge the powers and duties of his office such powers and duties shall be discharged by the Vice President as Acting President.—excerpts from the 25th AmendmentA to allow all citizens to vote in state and federal elections. B to ensure an orderly transition of presidential power in case of emergency. C to prohibit citizens of one state from suing the government of another state. D to prevent the executive branch of government from gaining too much power.
143 According to this Supreme Court decision, which judicial action would be unconstitutional? “The right of [a poor] defendant in a criminal trial to have the assistance of counsel is a fundamental right essential to a fair trial, and petitioner’s trial and conviction without the assistance of counsel violated the Fourteenth Amendment.”—Gideon v. Wainwright, 1963A denying legal representation to any person accused of a serious crime B requiring persons accused of crimes to testify against themselves in court C allowing police to look for evidence in a criminal case without a warrant D requiring witnesses to describe what they have seen during a criminal act