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Helping Verbs! Helping Verbs! There are 23.... Am, is, are! Was and were! Being, been, and be! Has, have, had! Do, does, did! Shall, should, will, and.

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Presentation on theme: "Helping Verbs! Helping Verbs! There are 23.... Am, is, are! Was and were! Being, been, and be! Has, have, had! Do, does, did! Shall, should, will, and."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Helping Verbs! Helping Verbs! There are Am, is, are! Was and were! Being, been, and be! Has, have, had! Do, does, did! Shall, should, will, and would! There are 5 more helping verbs: may, might, must, can, could!

3  Subject:  Who or what is or does the verb in the sentence The girl walked home. Who walked home? (girl=subject)  Verb  The action or state of being of the sentence The girl walked home. What did the girl do? (walked= verb) Remember: State of being words= helping verbs in our song

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5  I can define and identify clauses and phrases.  I can distinguish between a dependent clause and an independent clause.

6  Grammatical Phrase  A group of words that has a specific function in a sentence “Group of words” means that the words are all right next to each other in a sentence; you can’t just pick random words from a sentence a call them a phrase Example: prepositional phrase (on the floor) Function= to give you a location  A phrase DOES NOT contain a subject and verb.

7  The cat is under the table.  Function: location (prep. phrase)  Running in the snow is hard.  Function: subject of sentence (gerund phrase)  Smiling broadly, the student showed his test grade to his mother.  Function: adverb to describe student (participial phrase) Notice: NONE of the phrases have a subject and verb in them.

8  The cat is under the table.  Cat is table IS NOT a phrase  Running in the snow is hard.  Running snow hard IS NOT a phrase.  Smiling broadly, the student showed his test grade to his mother.  Student his mother IS NOT a phrase

9  Is a phrase ever a complete thought? Thumbs up for yes. Thumbs down for no. Hint: Think about what a thought or sentence must contain to be considered grammatically complete.

10  Grammatical Clause  A group of words that contains a subject AND a verb Examples: (subject, verb) When I was young Sally is 14 years old. The student ran toward the bus.

11 1) Going to the store 2) By the door 3) I read the book 4) Seeing the movie 5) Scared of the storm Remember: If it has a subject AND verb, it is a clause.

12  True or False: A clause is always a complete sentence. Thumbs up for true. Thumbs down for false.

13  Dependent Clauses  Cannot “stand alone” as a complete sentences  Have a subject AND a verb but DO NOT express complete thoughts  Examples:  When I was young (Well, when you were young what?)  As the bell rang (Well, as the bell rang what?) Dependent clauses depend on having more to the sentence to be complete.

14  Independent Clauses  Can “stand alone” as complete sentences  Have a subject AND a verb AND express complete thoughts  Examples:  She ran to the store. Subject=She, verb=ran, left wondering information?- No  I already ate. Subject=I, verb=ate, left wondering information?- No

15 1) Until it’s time to go 2) After the storm ended 3) Bob asked out Laura 4) The dog gnawed on the bone dependent independent

16  I can define and identify clauses and phrases.  I can distinguish between a dependent clause and an independent clause.

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18  I can identify sentence fragments.  I can fix sentence fragments.

19  Fragments= incomplete sentences  A fragment might :  be missing a subject  be missing a verb  not express a complete thought  Dependent clauses are fragments when they are on their own because they leave you wanting information. (They don’t express a complete thoughts.)

20  The boy in the class.  Missing verb Corrected: The boy is in the class.  Is in the class.  Missing subject Corrected: The boy is in the class.  When the boy is in the class  Does not express a complete thought. You are left wondering: When the boy is in the class, what? Corrected: When the boy is in the class, he always pays attention.

21  In my room.  (add a subject & verb and any other words you need)  After the storm ended,  (Add an independent clause after the comma)  The dog  (Use dog as your subject and add a verb and any other words you need)

22  Fragments are not grammatically correct. However, when might be an appropriate time to use them? (Hint: Think about the texts that you read and if fragments are present in them. Also think about the communication you do on a daily basis. When don’t we need to be grammatically correct?)

23 The happy couple.

24 Bunch of weirdos.

25 Helping each other.

26 When Miss Hayes visits her nephew

27 If Romeo & Juliet would have waited to get married.

28 Using periods/capital letters and semi-colons to fix run-sentences

29  What are the three criteria of a complete sentence (independent clause)?  1-____________  2-____________  3-____________

30  A run-on sentence is when you combine many complete thoughts (independent clauses) in one sentence and you do not use the proper punctuation to join them.  Example:  Romeo and Juliet is a great play the characters are very interesting. Independent clause 1: Romeo and Juliet is a great play Independent clause 2: the characters make it interesting. What’s joining them?: Nothing (Gasp! OH NO!)

31  Run-on sentences will always be long sentences. A) True B) False

32  You do need some kind of punctuation to join together the independent clauses in a run-on sentence. However, YOU CANNOT SIMPLY USE A COMMA. THIS CREATES A COMMA SPLICE. 2 FACTS ABOUT COMMA SPLICES:  A comma splice is NOT grammatically correct.  Comma splices drive Miss Hayes NUTS.

33 To fix a run-on:  Insert a period between the independent clauses and capitalize the letter beginning each independent clause.  Example: Romeo and Juliet is a great play. T he characters make it interesting.

34 To fix a run-on:  Insert a semi-colon between two RELATED independent clauses.  The semi-colon emphasizes the relationship between the two independent clauses.  There is no capital letter after the semi-colon unless the independent clause begins with a proper noun. Example: Romeo and Juliet is a great play ; t he characters make it interesting.

35  ;  semi-colon  :  colon

36  The following sentence is a run-on sentence because it is so long: When she was a kid, Suzy loved playing in the mud and examining bugs, but her favorite thing to do was to ride her bike to 7-11 and spend at least an hour deciding how she would spend her $2 allowance that she got once per week from her mom for doing chores around the house.  True  False

37  Romeo and Juliet killed themselves this was an impetuous thing to do. (period/capital letter)  Lord Montague is my least favorite character Nurse is my favorite. (period/capital letter)  It’s important to stay up to date on the readings; if you fall behind, it’s that much harder to catch up. (semi-colon)  Friar Laurence is a complex character; he is a religious leader, but he also lies and performs a secret marriage. (semi-colon)

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39  Identify FANBOYS coordinating conjunctions.  Use commas in a list.  Identify multiple independent clauses in one sentence.  Insert a comma between two independent clauses joined by a FANBOYS coordinating conjunction.

40  What does each letter in FANBOYS stand for? F A N B O Y S Nor For And But Or Yet So

41  What is the definition or function of a conjunction? A conjunction joins together words, phrases, and clauses.

42  When you have a list of items in a sentence, you will use AND or OR and each item in the list is separated by a comma.  I have math, history, and English homework tonight.  My sisters’ names are Kalie, Jenna, Amanda, and Madison.  Have Lisa, James, Bob, or Sally help you with your homework.

43  The comma which appears in a list before the FANBOYS is called an oxford comma.  It is usually optional. Some publications use it. Others don’t.  Miss Hayes prefers it. It is also called the Harvard comma.

44  “I’d like to thank my parents, Oprah and God.”  Without the comma before and, it makes it seem like your parents are Oprah and God.

45  Use a comma before a FANBOYS which joins together two independent clauses (complete thoughts).  I have an Uncle Jim, and I have an Uncle Tom.  She went to the mall, for she needed new jeans.  Joe is going to the movies this weekend, or he is going to just stay home and relax.

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47  Underline the FANBOYS and add the comma if necessary. 1) They are running late, so they need to hurry. 2) It is not her fault, nor is it my fault. 3) Do you want the pink shirt or the blue shirt? 4) It’s late, yet I am not sleepy. Remember: Only add the comma before the FANBOYS if there is an independent clause on the other side of it.

48  If you can insert “that” after “so” in a sentence, you do not have an independent clause after “so”.  I wanted to take the quiz early so I wouldn’t have to worry about it over the weekend.  “I wouldn’t have to worry about it over the weekend” certainly seems like an independent clause. I wanted to take the quiz early so that I wouldn’t have to worry about it over the weekend. No comma before “so” because there’s actaully a “that” after it

49  She went to the store so she could get some milk, butter, and eggs. A) Comma B) No comma She went to the store so THAT she could get some milk, butter, and eggs.

50  Run-on: I used to like reading fiction now I like reading non-fiction.  Semi-colon: I used to like reading fiction; now I like reading non-fiction.  Period/Capital: I used to like reading fiction. Now I like reading non-fiction.  FANBOYS comma: I used to like reading fiction, but now I like reading non-fiction.

51  Period & capital letter  Semi-colon (if the two thoughts are related)  Comma + FANBOYS

52  Complete the practice page stapled to your notes.

53 Please learn how to use apostrophes so that you don’t make mistakes like this.

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55  1- To take the place of omitted (left out) letters & numbers.  Contractions/Slang: Left out letters to reflect the informal way people speak  Contraction- I can’t go out today. (can’t= cannot)  Contraction- She hasn’t got any candy. (hasn’t= has not)  Slang- You goin’ to the store? (goin’= going)  Left out Numbers:  WWII ended in ‘45. (’45= 1945)

56 YOU ONLY USE APOSTROPHES WITH VERBS TO MAKE CONTRACTIONS OR WITH SLANG. THE FOLLOWING WORDS DO NOT ACTUALLY EXIST EVEN THOUGH I SEE THEM IN SOME OF YOUR WRITING. Incorrect & NonexistentCorrect -she flie’s -one sing’s -he bring’s -she laugh’s -she flies -one sings -he brings -she laughs

57  Change each of the following into a contraction.  1) It + is  2) is + not  3) could + have  4) would + not

58  2- An apostrophe must be used with a noun to show ownership or possession.

59  Add an ‘s when a singular noun is possessing something.  Suzy’s cat ran away. (The cat belonging to Suzy)  Friday’s test will be tricky. (The test belonging to Friday)  Mr. Powers’s tie is bright pink. (the tie belonging to Mr. Powers)

60 What word needs the apostrophe to show possession?  The students essay received an A.

61  To make most nouns plural, we add an s. To then make it possessive, add an apostrophe after the s.  The girls’ dresses are beautiful.  Multiple girls  The students’ homework assignments were late.  Multiple students

62  Example:  The shoes of the boys  the boys’ shoes  1) The essays of the students  _____________  2) The papers of the teachers  _____________  3) the legs of the desks  __________________

63  Some nouns don’t add an s to be plural. They change their spelling to become plural.  Examples: man  men, octopus  octopi, child  children  When this is the case, you add an ‘s to the already plural noun.  men’s, octopi’s, children’s mens’ is incorrect; it is saying you need an s to make men plural, but you don’t.

64  Example:  The tails of the oxen  the oxen’s tails  1) The coats of the gentlemen  ____________  2) The ideas of the freshmen  _____________  3) The tentacles of the octopi  ____________

65  If two people/things possess the same thing, the ‘s goes on the last person/thing listed  John and Steve’s company One company belonging to both of them  If two people/things possess different things, each person/thing gets an apostrophe.  John’s and Steve’s companies John and Steve each own their own company

66 1. One dog belonging to Becky & Suzy  _________________ 2. The one tardy policy of Miss Hayes & Mrs. Desmarais  _____________________ 3. The essays of John and Bob (they each wrote their own)  _________________ 4. The essay that John and Bob wrote (together)  ______________

67  I cant go with you to Jims dads house because Im busy tomorrow.  This isnt fair.  The womens bathroom was neat and tidy.  The childrens choir sang beautifully.  She accidentally stepped on the dogs tail.

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