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Theories of Counseling: Behavioral Approaches PowerPoint produced by Melinda Haley, M.S., New Mexico State University. “This multimedia product and its.

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Presentation on theme: "Theories of Counseling: Behavioral Approaches PowerPoint produced by Melinda Haley, M.S., New Mexico State University. “This multimedia product and its."— Presentation transcript:

1 Theories of Counseling: Behavioral Approaches PowerPoint produced by Melinda Haley, M.S., New Mexico State University. “This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law:  any public performance or display, including transmission of an image over a network;  preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or part, of any images;  any rental, lease, or lending of the program.” “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”

2 Behavioral Approaches Development of Behavioral Approaches  John Locke: Blank Slate  John Watson: Learned Neuroses  B. F. Skinner: Operant Conditioning  Ivan Pavlov: Classical Conditioning “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”

3 Behavioral Approaches Basic Principles  Reinforcement: Rewards and Punishments.  Shaping: Working with small, incremental changes.  Measurement: Objective, measurable outcomes.  Action: Dwells more on behaviors than thoughts. “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”

4 Behavioral Approaches Albert Ellis/Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) Theoretical Constructs and Techniques  Focuses on dysfunctional, irrational, unrealistic and distorted thoughts.  Feelings and behavior are also addressed.  Unconditional acceptance is important.  Ellis also believed in authenticity.  Clients are encouraged to think rationally. “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”

5 Behavioral Approaches Albert Ellis/Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) Philosophy and Beliefs  Understanding belief systems is important.  Belief systems are organized ways of thinking about reality.  Belief systems affect one’s self-view.  The language a client uses, will speak to their philosophy and belief system. “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”

6 Behavioral Approaches Albert Ellis/Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) Philosophy and Beliefs (continued)  Clients create their own emotional disturbances by believing in absolute and irrational beliefs.  Clients can choose their belief system.  Counselors can help clients by identifying irrational beliefs and helping the client find meaning in their lives. “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004” Beliefs

7 Behavioral Approaches Albert Ellis/Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) Identifying Irrational Thinking  Helpless thinking is the result of irrational thinking.  It usually includes “all or nothing” statements.  It usually includes the words should, ought, never and must. “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”

8 Behavioral Approaches Albert Ellis/Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) Identifying Irrational Thinking (continued) Five common irrational or dysfunctional ideas: “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”  “Life isn’t fair.”  “It’s awful.”  “I can’t stand it.”  “I must get what I want.”  “I’m incompetent.”

9 Behavioral Approaches Albert Ellis/Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) A-B-C-D-E-F A = The activating event. B = The irrational belief about the event. C = The emotional consequence. D = Disputing the irrational beliefs. E = The emotional effect of disputing the belief. F = New feelings and behavior. “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”

10 Behavioral Approaches Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy and Multiculturalism  The therapy fails to address contextual-situational factors that adversely impact client’s lives.  REBT uses the ethnocentric approach to mental health care.  Does not focus on the phenomenological experience of the client.  Does not address the different ways irrational beliefs are manifested by the culturally different. “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”

11 Behavioral Approaches William Glasser/Reality Therapy/Choice Theory The Basics  Instead of seeking to change behavior, Reality Therapy works on changing awareness of responsibility.  Once responsibility is acknowledged by the client, it is then possible to work on behavior change.  The locus of the decision is placed on the client. “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”

12 Behavioral Approaches William Glasser/Reality Therapy/Choice Theory The Basics  The Reality therapist might borrow skills, techniques or ideas from other theories if it benefits the client.  The Reality therapist will be himself or herself, use humor, sarcasm and confrontation in personal ways to assist the client in greater understanding.  Role-playing, systematic planning, and teaching intentional living are all important in Reality Therapy. “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”

13 Behavioral Approaches William Glasser/Reality Therapy/Choice Theory The Basics  The client has control over his or her life, choices and personhood.  There is no need to explore a client’s past because the past is over and the client’s problems occur in the present.  Reality therapy puts the power into the client’s hands and shows the client how he or she can help himself or herself. “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004” Power

14 Behavioral Approaches William Glasser/Reality Therapy/Choice Theory The Basics  The client and counselor explores the client’s wants and needs.  It focuses on conscious, planned behavior.  The therapy focuses on responsibility and choice.  Trust and the relationship between client and counselor are critical. “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”

15 Behavioral Approaches William Glasser/Reality Therapy/Choice Theory The Basics  Since it is often used in institutions, the counselor’s communication of trust, warmth, respect and caring is especially important.  Reality therapy helps clients look at the consequences of their own actions.  This therapy is often used in settings other than the counseling office (e.g. playground or detention center) and is practiced by those other than counselors (e.g. teacher and prison guard). “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004” Consequences

16 Behavioral Approaches William Glasser/Reality Therapy//Choice Theory Cognitive Aspects of Reality Therapy  Reality therapy aids the client in examining the types of thoughts he or she has about himself or herself and the external world.  It helps clients exert control over their own actions, lives, choices and feelings.  Clients choose misery and symptoms. This becomes a way a client has of dealing with the world (e.g. depressing, headaching). “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004” Thoughts

17 Behavioral Approaches William Glasser/Reality Therapy/Choice Theory Cognitive Aspects of Reality Therapy  There are negative additions (e.g. drugs, stealing) and positive addictions (e.g. walking, meditation).  We choose our addictions and therefore our fate.  Reality therapy helps clients to: Explore their wants and how that relates to their needs; look at what they are doing to meet those needs; evaluate behaviors in relationship to those needs and helps the client plan to change behavior to more effectively meet needs. “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”

18 Behavioral Approaches William Glasser/Reality Therapy/Choice Theory Cognitive Aspects of Reality Therapy  There are negative additions (e.g. drugs, stealing) and positive addictions (e.g. walking, meditation).  We choose our addictions and therefore our fate.  Reality therapy helps clients to: Explore their wants and how that relates to their needs; look at what they are doing to meet those needs; evaluate behaviors in relationship to those needs and helps the client plan to change behavior to more effectively meet needs. “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”

19 Behavioral Approaches Reality Therapy and Multiculturalism  Many of the tenets of Reality therapy fits well with other cultures.  Helping the client explore wants and needs keeps the focus on the client’s values and concerns within the client’s cultural context.  Reality therapy challenges the client to see the self in relationship to his or her context. This includes the client’s cultural context. “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”

20 Behavioral Approaches Donald Meichenbaum’s Ten Central Tenets of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy  Behavior is reciprocal between a client’s thoughts, feelings, psychological processes and resultant consequences.  Cognitions do not cause emotional difficulty.  Counselors help clients understand how they construct and construe reality.  CBT therapists dissuade from the rationalist or objectivist position.  There is an emphasis on collaboration with the client. “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”

21 Behavioral Approaches Donald Meichenbaum’s Ten Central Tenets of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (continued)  Relapse prevention is central to cognitive behavioral therapy.  The client/therapist relationship is critical for change to occur.  Emotions play a critical role in cognitive-behavioral therapy.  CBT is used with couples and families.  CBT can be used in a variety of setting with a variety of issues. “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”

22 Behavioral Approaches Applied Behavioral Analysis: Central Constructs  Client-counselor relationship is imperative and counselors exhibit high levels of empathy, self-congruence and interpersonal contact. The relationship is collaborative and relationship variables differ according to client and culture.  Operationalization of Behavior: Focuses on the concreteness and specifics of behavior. Vagueness is transformed into objective, observable actions.  Functional Analysis: The ABC’s of behavior. An individual's behavior is directly related to events and stimuli in the environment. “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”

23 Behavioral Approaches Applied Behavioral Analysis: Central Constructs  Reinforcement: Behavior develops and maintains itself through a system of punishments and rewards.  Goals: These are designed to make specific behavioral changes. Goals are concrete, specific, observable and measurable. “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”

24 Resources Ivey, A. E., D’Andrea, M., Ivey, M. B. and Morgan, L. S. (2002). Theories of counseling and psychotherapy: A multicultural perspective, 5 th ed. Boston, MA.: Allyn & Bacon. James, R. K. & Gilliland, B. E. (2003). Theories and strategies in counseling and psychotherapy, 5 th ed. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon. Kottler, J. A. (2002). Theories in counseling and therapy: An experiential approach. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon. “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”


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