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Church History Part I: Pentecost to the Western Schism.

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Presentation on theme: "Church History Part I: Pentecost to the Western Schism."— Presentation transcript:

1 Church History Part I: Pentecost to the Western Schism

2 The Jesus Movement The “Twelve” His “Bothers” Notable Women: Mary, his Mother, Mary Magdalene, Prisca, Dorcas, others Community of “Disciples”

3 The Church Begins: Pentecost The “Birthday” of the Church Believers in Hiding Gathered for Fellowship Praying about what to do Holy Spirit – Tongues of Fire Went Public in a Big Way Spoke in many tongues! Peter converted 3000 in one day in the streets

4 What was the early Church like? House Churches No Formal Priesthood – Home Owners Simple, warm, hospitable: welcome table Mostly Jews who also went to synagogue Shared Jesus stories; and broke bread” Growth quick – spread to many homes Eventually necessitated going public

5 Early Christian Beliefs Jesus’ Second Coming was Imminent! Jesus was the Messiah – the end time had come The coming of the Kingdom or Reign of God proclaimed every possible chance Must be Jewish to be Christian Tolerated by some Jews, rejected by others Shared all goods in common Community of Believers was important but didn’t really connect with outsiders until...

6 Apostolic Era 30 – 100 A.D. Peter, First Leader, Pope Paul of Tarsus. Missionary to Gentiles James, the “Brother” of Jesus; Leader of Church in Jerusalem

7 Missionary Movement to Cyprus, Asia Minor (Turkey) in Acts of Apostles or “Up With Gentiles!” Paul of Tarsus Barnabas John Mark

8 Organization Happened... Sacraments Hierarchy – ordination of priests, bishops dogma developed Ritual developed Heresies! Gnosticism, Montanism, Novatianism, Donatism, Arianism, etc.

9 Persecutions – First 3 Centuries Emperor Nero and others Brutally hostile to Christianity; Many tortured and killed The Coliseum in Rome (not the one in LA)

10 Christianity Declared Legal! Emperor Constantine and Edict of Milan

11 St. Augustine of Hippo – AD Church as the Body of Christ Presence of the Holy Spirit Bishop of Rome – Pope Church & Kingdom of God Had a huge impact on the Church – remains a giant!

12 400 – Growth! Basilicas, Monasteries, Universities, etc.

13 Church Growth – East and West

14 Rome Sacked in 410 AD by Barbarians! ! Emperor Theodosius divided empire and thus weakened it Dark Ages Begun! Christianity Steps Up to Save Western Civilization and to Restore Order Western church (located in Rome) totally focused on re-building, practical matters, NOT on spiritual ones

15 Meanwhile, in the East... Spirituality was central Focus on liturgy, theology, spirituality, sacramental life and Spirituality had time to refine and grow

16 Unfortunate Result One Church with Two Hearts...slowly becoming two distinct communities who didn’t recognize each other

17 The Middle Ages: Charlemagne 800 AD – Charlemagne is crowned emperor Wanted unification of the East and West in the Empire Went to war! Did amazing things like development of universities, architecture, art, etc. Wanted separation of Church and State – his reign thus weakened the Church’s political hold

18 Monks, Friars, and Other Holy People Church in both East and West had Holy People

19 Rise of Islam and Capture of the Holy Land Mohammed’s Mission is Successful Moslems take over Holy Land Western Church Enraged! Something must be done!! Pope Urban II Declares a “Holy War” to unite the church and get back the sacred places

20 The Crusades A.D. “Holy War” = “God wills it” Rise of the Knights Templar Many People joined the cause Result: DISASTER!!! Western Christians did not recognize Eastern Christians and slaughtered all of them! Eastern Church enraged!

21 The Great Schism of 1054 Crusaders sacked Constantinople much to the outrage of the Eastern Church Last straw for Patriarch Michael Cerularius! Forbid Eastern Church to perform Latin Rite Pope Leo IX threatened excommunication They excommunicated each other! First time: CHURCH DIVIDED!!

22 The Inquisition (12 th Century) Heresies again! Pope Innocent III – permitted searching out people accused of heresy (there were many!) Pope Gregory IX established a tribunal for it Inquisitors: would hear cases and impose punishments on those found guilty

23 The Black Death (Bubonic Plague) Struck every country in Europe killing almost one half of the population 100,000 in Venice 80,000 in Siena 57,000 in Marseille 80,000 in Paris England, Spain, Switzerland, Rhine Valley, Scandinavian Countries

24 Despair Everywhere! Medieval Life was never the same! Church was NOT the same either... Many of the clergy died Negative attitudes prevailed – where was God? Somberness of liturgy and theology Need to find meaning and hope in it

25 Hope Prevailed in the Darkness Many saints and mystics St. John of the Cross St. Thomas Aquinas St. Ignatius of Loyola St. Teresa of Avila

26 Then...Western Schism or Will the Real Pope Please Stand Up? Papacy moved to Avignon, France in 1305 for political reasons (Pope Clement V) Remained there for 70 years! 7 legitimate popes resided there Lots of conflict and corruption

27 All Frenchmen! Clement V, John XXII, (Nicholas V), Benedict XII, Clement VI, Innocent VI, Urban V, Gregory XI

28 “The Great Western Schism” Pope Gregory XI moved it back to Rome in 1378 and then died; Pope Urban VI elected French hated him so they elected another pope: Clement VIII – who moved back to Avignon

29 Meanwhile... Will the real pope please stand up???? Clement declared an antipope; successor was Benedict, successor was another Clement... BENEDICT in Rome? OR GREGORY in France? Both out! Counsel of Pisa – election of Alexander V Then John XXIII (declared an antipope) Then finally Martin V - back in Rome

30 Effects of Crusades, Inquisition, Bubonic Plague, Great Western Schism WEAKENING OF THE PAPACY WEAKENING OF THE AUTHORITY OF THE CHURCH UNREST...DOUBT...FEAR! A SPLINTERED CHURCH... AND... MUCH BIGGER SPLINTERING TO COME!

31 TO BE CONTINUED... NEXT WEEK: THE RENAISSANCE, THE PROTESTANT REFORMATION AND ON TO MODERN ERA


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