Presentation on theme: "Church History Part I: Pentecost to the Western Schism."— Presentation transcript:
Church History Part I: Pentecost to the Western Schism
The Jesus Movement The “Twelve” His “Bothers” Notable Women: Mary, his Mother, Mary Magdalene, Prisca, Dorcas, others Community of “Disciples”
The Church Begins: Pentecost The “Birthday” of the Church Believers in Hiding Gathered for Fellowship Praying about what to do Holy Spirit – Tongues of Fire Went Public in a Big Way Spoke in many tongues! Peter converted 3000 in one day in the streets
What was the early Church like? House Churches No Formal Priesthood – Home Owners Simple, warm, hospitable: welcome table Mostly Jews who also went to synagogue Shared Jesus stories; and broke bread” Growth quick – spread to many homes Eventually necessitated going public
Early Christian Beliefs Jesus’ Second Coming was Imminent! Jesus was the Messiah – the end time had come The coming of the Kingdom or Reign of God proclaimed every possible chance Must be Jewish to be Christian Tolerated by some Jews, rejected by others Shared all goods in common Community of Believers was important but didn’t really connect with outsiders until...
Apostolic Era 30 – 100 A.D. Peter, First Leader, Pope Paul of Tarsus. Missionary to Gentiles James, the “Brother” of Jesus; Leader of Church in Jerusalem
Missionary Movement to Cyprus, Asia Minor (Turkey) in Acts of Apostles or “Up With Gentiles!” Paul of Tarsus Barnabas John Mark
Organization Happened... Sacraments Hierarchy – ordination of priests, bishops dogma developed Ritual developed Heresies! Gnosticism, Montanism, Novatianism, Donatism, Arianism, etc.
Persecutions – First 3 Centuries Emperor Nero and others Brutally hostile to Christianity; Many tortured and killed The Coliseum in Rome (not the one in LA)
Christianity Declared Legal! Emperor Constantine and Edict of Milan
St. Augustine of Hippo – AD Church as the Body of Christ Presence of the Holy Spirit Bishop of Rome – Pope Church & Kingdom of God Had a huge impact on the Church – remains a giant!
400 – Growth! Basilicas, Monasteries, Universities, etc.
Church Growth – East and West
Rome Sacked in 410 AD by Barbarians! ! Emperor Theodosius divided empire and thus weakened it Dark Ages Begun! Christianity Steps Up to Save Western Civilization and to Restore Order Western church (located in Rome) totally focused on re-building, practical matters, NOT on spiritual ones
Meanwhile, in the East... Spirituality was central Focus on liturgy, theology, spirituality, sacramental life and Spirituality had time to refine and grow
Unfortunate Result One Church with Two Hearts...slowly becoming two distinct communities who didn’t recognize each other
The Middle Ages: Charlemagne 800 AD – Charlemagne is crowned emperor Wanted unification of the East and West in the Empire Went to war! Did amazing things like development of universities, architecture, art, etc. Wanted separation of Church and State – his reign thus weakened the Church’s political hold
Monks, Friars, and Other Holy People Church in both East and West had Holy People
Rise of Islam and Capture of the Holy Land Mohammed’s Mission is Successful Moslems take over Holy Land Western Church Enraged! Something must be done!! Pope Urban II Declares a “Holy War” to unite the church and get back the sacred places
The Crusades A.D. “Holy War” = “God wills it” Rise of the Knights Templar Many People joined the cause Result: DISASTER!!! Western Christians did not recognize Eastern Christians and slaughtered all of them! Eastern Church enraged!
The Great Schism of 1054 Crusaders sacked Constantinople much to the outrage of the Eastern Church Last straw for Patriarch Michael Cerularius! Forbid Eastern Church to perform Latin Rite Pope Leo IX threatened excommunication They excommunicated each other! First time: CHURCH DIVIDED!!
The Inquisition (12 th Century) Heresies again! Pope Innocent III – permitted searching out people accused of heresy (there were many!) Pope Gregory IX established a tribunal for it Inquisitors: would hear cases and impose punishments on those found guilty
The Black Death (Bubonic Plague) Struck every country in Europe killing almost one half of the population 100,000 in Venice 80,000 in Siena 57,000 in Marseille 80,000 in Paris England, Spain, Switzerland, Rhine Valley, Scandinavian Countries
Despair Everywhere! Medieval Life was never the same! Church was NOT the same either... Many of the clergy died Negative attitudes prevailed – where was God? Somberness of liturgy and theology Need to find meaning and hope in it
Hope Prevailed in the Darkness Many saints and mystics St. John of the Cross St. Thomas Aquinas St. Ignatius of Loyola St. Teresa of Avila
Then...Western Schism or Will the Real Pope Please Stand Up? Papacy moved to Avignon, France in 1305 for political reasons (Pope Clement V) Remained there for 70 years! 7 legitimate popes resided there Lots of conflict and corruption
All Frenchmen! Clement V, John XXII, (Nicholas V), Benedict XII, Clement VI, Innocent VI, Urban V, Gregory XI
“The Great Western Schism” Pope Gregory XI moved it back to Rome in 1378 and then died; Pope Urban VI elected French hated him so they elected another pope: Clement VIII – who moved back to Avignon
Meanwhile... Will the real pope please stand up???? Clement declared an antipope; successor was Benedict, successor was another Clement... BENEDICT in Rome? OR GREGORY in France? Both out! Counsel of Pisa – election of Alexander V Then John XXIII (declared an antipope) Then finally Martin V - back in Rome
Effects of Crusades, Inquisition, Bubonic Plague, Great Western Schism WEAKENING OF THE PAPACY WEAKENING OF THE AUTHORITY OF THE CHURCH UNREST...DOUBT...FEAR! A SPLINTERED CHURCH... AND... MUCH BIGGER SPLINTERING TO COME!
TO BE CONTINUED... NEXT WEEK: THE RENAISSANCE, THE PROTESTANT REFORMATION AND ON TO MODERN ERA