Presentation on theme: "Robert D. Putnam “Making Democracy Work: Civic Traditions in Modern Italy” (Chapter 4, 5, 6) Sakhayaana I34028."— Presentation transcript:
Robert D. Putnam “Making Democracy Work: Civic Traditions in Modern Italy” (Chapter 4, 5, 6) Sakhayaana I34028
Introduction After regional reforms in Italy in the 1970s, regions were endowed with considerable powers, where the North of Italy began to flourish while the South remained unchanged. Putnam in his work tries to understand why such a gap exists in a relatively small area.
Theoretical framework Why might social networks and social trust relate to good governance? Social trust Social networks Civic engagement Accountable representative democracy Better policy outputs? Political trust?
Interesting Fact In Russia the book was translated and published two years later, Putnam's ideas have been proposed as a kind of solutions, some social prescription, but apparently the message has not been understood.
Chapter 4. Explaining Institutional Performance Socioeconomic Modernity, that is, the result of the industrial revolution. The Civic Community, that is, patterns of civic involvement and social solidarity.
Socioeconomic Modernity, that is, the result of the industrial revolution. The Civic Community, that is, patterns of civic involvement and social solidarity.
“Civic” community Civic engagement Political Equality Solidarity, Trust, and Tolerance Associations: Social Structures of Cooperation
The civic society: testing the theory
Social and Political Life in the Civic Community
Excluded affiliations Unions The Church and Religiosity Parties
Other Explanations for Institutional Success Social Stability Education Urbanism Personnel Stability The Italian Communist Party (PCI) Why are some regions more civic than others?
Chapter 5. Tracing the Roots of the Civic Community Various regimes in Italy:
For South XI – XII C. Authoritarian regime of Norman kingdom, combining the elements of feudal, bureaucratic, and absolutist government. -After King Frederick's death barons gained power and autonomy, but cities and towns did not. Hierarchical structure of South remained essentially unchanged. XIV – XVI C. South remained largely unharmed of the destructive calamities of Black Death and foreign invasions. -Still, social structure remained highly autocratic and hierarchical, with kings and barons retaining autocratic powers and the vertical relations based on exploitation and dependence remained.
For North XIV – XVI C. the northernmost provinces fell back to signatories control, and other regions were also devastated by Black Death and foreign invasions, but elements of civic culture remained. Communities based on mutual assistance, common defense and economic cooperation sprung up as history moved out of the Dark Ages. “credit”
So, the northern and southern regions of Italy followed a drastically different path of history in their development. Briefly, all the elements of the northern civic culture remained - as particularly well exemplified by rapid developments of mutual aid societies, cooperatives, and the labor unions. Meanwhile, the South remained just as well hierarchical in structure as they always have been.
Chapter 6. Social Capital and Institutional Success Dilemmas of Collective Action - Game theories - Absence of mutual commitment - Trust - The leviathan
Social Capital, Trust, and Rotating Credit Associations Social capital = TRUST, norms, and networks, that can improve the efficiency of society by facilitating coordinated actions. A rotating credit association
Norms of Reciprocity and Networks of Civic Engagement Social norms, when an action has externalities for others. Reciprocity is of two sorts, sometimes called “balanced” (or specific) and “generalized” (or diffuse). Effective Norm of Reciprocity=dense networks of social exchange. Interpersonal communication (horizontal, vertical and mixed)
Networks of Civil Engagement Four side effects: 1)Increase the potential costs to a defector. 2)Foster robust norms of reciprocity. 3)Facilitate communication and improve the flow of information. 4)Embody past success at collaboration and promote future collaboration.
History and Institutional Performance: Two Social Equilibria Case of America South America: -Tradition of hierarchical -Catholic culture -Familism -Exploitation North America: -Decentralization -Civism -English patrimony
Critique Associations could be temporary (?) Only one case Exclusion of some Organizations