Presentation on theme: "Robert D. Putnam “Making Democracy Work: Civic Traditions in Modern Italy” (Chapter 4, 5, 6) Sakhayaana I34028."— Presentation transcript:
1Robert D. Putnam “Making Democracy Work: Civic Traditions in Modern Italy” (Chapter 4, 5, 6) SakhayaanaI34028
2IntroductionAfter regional reforms in Italy in the 1970s, regions were endowed with considerable powers, where the North of Italy began to flourish while the South remained unchanged.Putnam in his work tries to understand why such a gap exists in a relatively small area.
4Theoretical framework Why might social networks and social trust relate to good governance?Social trustAccountable representative democracyBetter policy outputs?Civic engagementSocial networksPolitical trust?
5Interesting FactIn Russia the book was translated and published two years later, Putnam's ideas have been proposed as a kind of solutions, some social prescription, but apparently the message has not been understood.
6Chapter 4. Explaining Institutional Performance Socioeconomic Modernity, that is, the result of the industrial revolution.The Civic Community, that is, patterns of civic involvement and social solidarity.
11Social and Political Life in the Civic Community
12Excluded affiliations UnionsThe Church and ReligiosityParties
13Other Explanations for Institutional Success Social StabilityEducationUrbanismPersonnel StabilityThe Italian Communist Party (PCI)Why are some regions more civic than others?
14Chapter 5. Tracing the Roots of the Civic Community Various regimes in Italy:
15For SouthXI – XII C. Authoritarian regime of Norman kingdom, combining the elements of feudal, bureaucratic, and absolutist government.After King Frederick's death barons gained power and autonomy, but cities and towns did not. Hierarchical structure of South remained essentially unchanged.XIV – XVI C. South remained largely unharmed of the destructive calamities of Black Death and foreign invasions.Still, social structure remained highly autocratic and hierarchical, with kings and barons retaining autocratic powers and the vertical relations based on exploitation and dependence remained.
16For NorthXIV – XVI C. the northernmost provinces fell back to signatories control, and other regions were also devastated by Black Death and foreign invasions, but elements of civic culture remained.Communities based on mutual assistance, common defense and economic cooperation sprung up as history moved out of the Dark Ages.“credit”
17So, the northern and southern regions of Italy followed a drastically different path of history in their development.Briefly, all the elements of the northern civic culture remained - as particularly well exemplified by rapid developments of mutual aid societies, cooperatives, and the labor unions. Meanwhile, the South remained just as well hierarchical in structure as they always have been.
18Chapter 6. Social Capital and Institutional Success Dilemmas of Collective Action- Game theories- Absence of mutual commitment- Trust- The leviathan
19Social Capital, Trust, and Rotating Credit Associations Social capital = TRUST, norms, and networks, that can improve the efficiency of society by facilitating coordinated actions.A rotating credit association
20Norms of Reciprocity and Networks of Civic Engagement Social norms, when an action has externalities for others.Reciprocity is of two sorts, sometimes called “balanced” (or specific) and “generalized” (or diffuse).Effective Norm of Reciprocity=dense networks of social exchange.Interpersonal communication (horizontal, vertical and mixed)
21Networks of Civil Engagement Four side effects:Increase the potential costs to a defector.Foster robust norms of reciprocity.Facilitate communication and improve the flow of information.Embody past success at collaboration and promote future collaboration.
22History and Institutional Performance: Two Social Equilibria Case of AmericaSouth America:Tradition of hierarchicalCatholic cultureFamilismExploitationNorth America:DecentralizationCivismEnglish patrimony
23Critique Associations could be temporary (?) Only one case Exclusion of some Organizations