Presentation on theme: "Key Terms – Former Colonies During the Cold War Nikita Kruschev Aswan Dam MPLA UNITA Fidel Castro Salvador Allende Augusto Pinochet Juntas Korean War 38."— Presentation transcript:
Key Terms – Former Colonies During the Cold War Nikita Kruschev Aswan Dam MPLA UNITA Fidel Castro Salvador Allende Augusto Pinochet Juntas Korean War 38 th Parallel Vietnam War 17 th Parallel
Post World War II Politics At the end of World War II, it was agreed between the nations that no colonies would be held anymore Countries that were colonized knew they could attack their colonizers because they were too weak to fight back Formerly colonized countries were too weak to stand alone so they relied heavily on the stronger nations Stronger nations would expect the weaker nations to repay their aid with financial advantages and alliances
North Africa and the Middle East Stalin did not involve himself with colonizing developing nations After his death in 1953, Nikita Kruschev decided to spread the Communist influence to the developing nations Would begin by attempting to influence the oil-rich nations of Iran and Turkey U.S. Would block this attempt by giving military and financial aid to these countries Would lose this alliance by backing Israel → Soviets would use this opportunity to strengthen its position.
Egypt Soviet Union and Egypt enter into an arms agreement and would also promise to help Egypt fight the Israelis U.S. Would try to block this union by offering to build a dam on the Nile River → would take back this offer Egypt would nationalize the Suez Canal which was owned by Britain and France → Britain and France would invade Egypt and ask the Israelis to help Israel would take the Gaza Strip and the British and French were about to invade when the Soviets threatened to join the incursion
Egypt and Iraq Conflict would be avoided due to the UN intervening and the United States backing the Egyptians to prevent the invasion Soviets and Egypt would maintain relations and the Soviets would build the Aswan Dam that had been promised earlier by the U.S. Soviets would also increase their control in Iraq → radical nationalist Abdul Karim Kassem would lead the revolt against the pro-Western government Iraq would adopt a pro-Communist regime but Kassem would be assassinated in 1963. Other regimes would follow until the end of Saddam Hussein's rule in 2003.
Africa Different groups wrestled for power now that the colonizing countries had left the continent. Major countries would back the nations that would support their political agendas Congo would become a communist state in 1964 Would continue its trade with Western nations but the economy failed to progress under the Communist regime
Angola Civil war would break out in Angola shortly after its independence was gained in 1975 Soviet Union backed the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) → South Africa and the United States supported the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) Communist government would be established in 1976 which would be opposed by UNITA → continued the civil war 1991, Cuba, Angola and South Africa agree to a peace treaty allowing for open elections in 1992.
Latin America When Cuba became independent in 1898, it leaned heavily on the United States for aid. 1959 → Fidel Castro would lead a Communist revolt against the Cuban government and would have the Soviet Union as an ally. Chile was suffering from similar problems Country was suffering from class disputes, inflation and a majority of the wealth was under the control of a few landowners 1970, country would elect Salvador Allende to the presidency → would construct a Communist regime and nationalize the copper industry the U.S. controlled.
Chile 1973, Allende would be removed from office and replace by Augusto Pinochet Would impose a militaristic state on Chile Returned businesses to private control and imposed strict censorship. Pinochet would be replaced in 1989 → country would continue to prosper.
Guatemala U.S. Continued to interfere in the affairs of other countries Decided to interfere with the Agrarian reforms made by the president of Guatemala who favored communist ideas. U.S. Would support a rebel group who would remove the government and replace it with a military government Would just send death squads to deal with opposition, many times killing a large amount of innocent people. Would continue to face turmoil all they way up until 1993 when a new president brought about change ending the civil wars in 1996.
Korean War At the end of 1945, after the Allies removed the Japanese from Korea, the territory would be split into two territories Soviet Union maintained control of the Northern part of Korea → dividing line would be drawn known as the 38 th Parallel. North became a communist territory while the south would become anti-Communist and ultimately become a dictatorship. Both sides sought to unite Korea under its rule
Fighting Breaks Out North Korean forces would cross the 38 th Parallel in June 1950 Harry Truman would plead to the UN to send support to prevent the spread of communism UN Security Council would vote on whether to send troops to South Korea → vote would be taken while the Soviets were not present U.S. Would send in their troops immediately which would be backed up by the UN forces.
Results By September 1950, the UN forces had been pushed almost completely out of Korea before the UN launched an offensive that allowed them to recover ground The UN forces were as far north as the border of Manchuria before the Chinese would assist the North Koreans. UN forces and North Korean forces would fight at the 38 th Parallel for the remainder of the war 1951 → truce talks would begin and in 1953 an armistice would be signed → war would not formally end until 1996
Post-Korean War South Korea would move towards a democratic government and would see their economic power expand North Korea would remain a communist dictatorship U.S. Keeps forces in South Korea as a security measure.
Vietnam After the war, the French wanted to resume control of its colonies in Indochina At this time, in Vietnam, a nationalist and communist leader, Ho Chi Minh opposed the French and launched a war against them The Soviets would back the Vietnamese and the French would be backed by the United States Fighting would break out and last until 1954 Peace agreement would be drawn up in Geneva dividing Vietnam into two parts, the line would be known as the 17 th Parallel N. Vietnam → Communist S. Vietnam → anti-Communist United States and South Vietnam did not sign the agreements