COMMUNISTS VS NATIONALISTS Nationalists & Communists fought for control in China during 1930s Joined forces to fight Japan during WWII After WWII, fighting continued,1946-1949 CommunistsNationalists Mao ZedongJiang Jieshi Northwest ChinaSouthwest China Soviet supportedUS supported
COMMUNISTS VS NATIONALISTS Communists well trained in guerilla war Communists promised land to peasants 1949, Communists won the civil war Nationalists fled to Taiwan
COMMUNISTS VS NATIONALISTS 1. What two groups fought the civil war? 2. Who led them? 3. Who won the civil war and why?
THE TWO CHINAS AFFECT THE COLD WAR US helped Nationalists create new government “Republic of China” Soviets helped Mao Zedong & his government “People’s Republic of China” Communist China tried to expand power Invaded Mongolia, Tibet and India
THE TWO CHINAS AFFECT THE COLD WAR 4. How did the superpowers take sides with the two Chinas? 5. Which side did each superpower support?
THE COMMUNISTS TRANSFORM CHINA Mao Zedong plans to rebuild China Seized land from landowners, gave to peasants Created collective farms, communes Land belonged to the group (no private property) Took control of China’s industries Increased production of industrial goods Coal, cement, steel, electricity
THE COMMUNISTS TRANSFORM CHINA “Great Leap Forward” Create larger, more productive farms Take Plan failed 1958-1961: famine killed millions
THE COMMUNISTS TRANSFORM CHINA Mao tried to revive revolution, “Cultural Revolution” Goal: society of peasants & workers in which all were equal “Red Guards,” militia of student-soldiers (teenagers) “learn revolution by making revolution” Shut down schools Killed thousands that resisted mostly intellectuals that were against revolution
China in chaos Factories shut down Farm production dropped End of “Cultural Revolution”
THE COMMUNISTS TRANSFORM CHINA 6. What are changes that Mao made to China? 7. Why do you think the Revolution failed?
WAR IN KOREA Korea divided into 2 nations after WWII North of 38 th parallel, Japan surrendered to Soviets South of 38 th parallel, Japan surrendered to Allies
WAR IN KOREA 1950 North Korea invaded South Korea US & other UN nations sent troops to help South Korea General Douglas MacArthur led the attack on North Korea 1953: cease-fire 38 th parallel remains dividing line
WAR IN KOREA North Korea: Communist government Strong army, tight gov’t control Economic problems South Korea: dictators US aid: helped economy grow 1987 began elections
WAR IN KOREA 8. Describe the division of Korea? BrainPop: Korean War
WAR BREAKS OUT IN VIETNAM France had control of Vietnam for ~100yrs Nationalist leader, Ho Chi Minh, defeated French after WWII Ho Chi Minh received aid from Communists US fearful of domino theory: if one country falls to communism, surrounding countries will, too Vietnam was split in two
WAR BREAKS OUT IN VIETNAM North VietnamSouth Vietnam Ho Chi MinhNgo Dinh Diem Communist,Non-Communist Vietcong: rebel fighters Support from China & Soviet UnionSupport from US & Allies
WAR BREAKS OUT IN VIETNAM US sent troops to help Vietnam to prevent entire country from becoming communist Many Americans opposed the war Vietnamization: US pulls out of the war, 1973 North Vietnam overran the South Vietnam still Communist today
WAR BREAKS OUT IN VIETNAM 9. What is the domino theory? 10. What happened in Vietnam after the United States withdrew? BrainPop Vietnam War
FIGHTING FOR THE THIRD WORLD After WWII, world is grouped into THREE “worlds” First World: United States & Allies Second World: Soviet Union & Communist Nations Third World: developing nations of Africa, Asia & Latin America
FIGHTING FOR THE THIRD WORLD Third World nations: serious problems from colonialism Political unrest Poverty Lack of education Limited or no technology Many tried to remain non-aligned, to stay out of Cold War
FIGHTING FOR THE THIRD WORLD 11. What problems did Third World nations face?
FIGHTING FOR THE THIRD WORLD Fidel Castro, a revolutionary overthrew Cuban government Social reforms, ended elections, jailed/executed opponents, censorship Nationalized economy (took away private ownership) US began trade embargo Gained economic support from Soviet Union Soviets placed nuclear missiles in Cuba US & Soviet Union ALMOST went to war
FIGHTING FOR THE THIRD WORLD US supported dictator in Nicaragua Government fell to Communist rebels Led by Daniel Ortega Nicaragua began to support Communist rebels in El Salvador US began to aid Nicaraguan rebels fighting against communist Civil war continued for 10 years