3Communists vs Nationalists Nationalists & Communists fought for control in China during 1930sJoined forces to fight Japan during WWIIAfter WWII, fighting continued,CommunistsNationalistsMao ZedongJiang JieshiNorthwest ChinaSouthwest ChinaSoviet supportedUS supported
4Communists vs Nationalists Communists well trained in guerilla warCommunists promised land to peasants1949, Communists won the civil warNationalists fled to Taiwan
5Communists vs Nationalists 1. What two groups fought the civil war?2. Who led them?3. Who won the civil war and why?
6The Two Chinas Affect the Cold War US helped Nationalists create new government“Republic of China”Soviets helped Mao Zedong & his government“People’s Republic of China”Communist China tried to expand powerInvaded Mongolia, Tibet and India
7The Two Chinas Affect the Cold War 4. How did the superpowers take sides with the two Chinas?5. Which side did each superpower support?
8The Communists Transform China Mao Zedong plans to rebuild ChinaSeized land from landowners, gave to peasantsCreated collective farms, communesLand belonged to the group (no private property)Took control of China’s industriesIncreased production of industrial goodsCoal, cement, steel, electricity
9The Communists Transform China “Great Leap Forward”Create larger, more productive farmsTakePlan failed: famine killed millions
10The Communists Transform China Mao tried to revive revolution, “Cultural Revolution”Goal: society of peasants & workers in which all were equal“Red Guards,” militia of student-soldiers (teenagers)“learn revolution by making revolution”Shut down schoolsKilled thousands that resistedmostly intellectuals that were against revolution
11End of “Cultural Revolution” China in chaosFactories shut downFarm production droppedEnd of “Cultural Revolution”
12The Communists Transform China 6. What are changes that Mao made to China?7. Why do you think the Revolution failed?
14War in Korea Korea divided into 2 nations after WWII North of 38th parallel, Japan surrendered to SovietsSouth of 38th parallel, Japan surrendered to Allies
15War in Korea 1950 North Korea invaded South Korea US & other UN nations sent troops to help South KoreaGeneral Douglas MacArthur led the attack on North Korea1953: cease-fire38th parallel remains dividing line
16War in Korea North Korea: Communist government South Korea: dictators Strong army, tight gov’t controlEconomic problemsSouth Korea: dictatorsUS aid: helped economy grow1987 began elections
17War in Korea8. Describe the division of Korea?BrainPop: Korean War
18War Breaks out in Vietnam France had control of Vietnam for ~100yrsNationalist leader, Ho Chi Minh, defeated French after WWIIHo Chi Minh received aid from CommunistsUS fearful of domino theory: if one country falls to communism, surrounding countries will, tooVietnam was split in two
19War Breaks out in Vietnam North VietnamSouth VietnamHo Chi MinhNgo Dinh DiemCommunist,Non-CommunistVietcong: rebel fightersSupport from China & Soviet UnionSupport from US & Allies
20War Breaks out in Vietnam US sent troops to help Vietnam to prevent entire country from becoming communistMany Americans opposed the warVietnamization:US pulls out of the war, 1973North Vietnam overran the SouthVietnam still Communist today
21War Breaks Out in Vietnam 9. What is the domino theory?10. What happened in Vietnam after the United States withdrew?BrainPop Vietnam War
23Fighting for the Third World After WWII, world is grouped into THREE “worlds”First World: United States & AlliesSecond World: Soviet Union & Communist NationsThird World: developing nations of Africa, Asia & Latin America
24Fighting for the Third World Third World nations: serious problems from colonialismPolitical unrestPovertyLack of educationLimited or no technologyMany tried to remain non-aligned, to stay out of Cold War
25Fighting for the Third World 11. What problems did Third World nations face?
26Fighting for the Third World Fidel Castro, a revolutionary overthrew Cuban governmentSocial reforms, ended elections, jailed/executed opponents, censorshipNationalized economy (took away private ownership)US began trade embargoGained economic support from Soviet UnionSoviets placed nuclear missiles in CubaUS & Soviet Union ALMOST went to war
27Fighting for the Third World US supported dictator in NicaraguaGovernment fell to Communist rebelsLed by Daniel OrtegaNicaragua began to support Communist rebels in El SalvadorUS began to aid Nicaraguan rebels fighting against communistCivil war continued for 10 years