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Cold War Divides the World

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1 Cold War Divides the World
Chapter 33.4

2 Fighting for the Third World
Foreign Aid Win allies by giving financial aid to other nations (Egypt took aid from SU to build Aswan Dam) Espionage Each side spied on one another to keep the enemy from gaining the advantage Multinational Alliances NATO and the Warsaw Pact Propaganda Both sides used propaganda to win support overseas (Radio Free Europe broadcast into Eastern Europe Brinkmanship Going to the brink of war to make the other side back down- the Cuban Missile Crisis Surrogate/ Proxy Wars The US and SU did not directly fight each other- backed opposing sides in smaller conflicts (Korea, Vietnam, Afghanistan)

3 Cuba under Castro When US enacted embargo on Cuba, Fidel Castro turned to SU for economic and military aid 1961- US armed Cuban exiles to invade Cuba at the Bay of Pigs- terrible loss to Castro’s army 1962- Nikita Khrushchev built 42 missile sites in Cuba President Kennedy demanded missiles be removed- SU removed missiles in exchange for US promise not to invade Cuba Cuba was completely dependent on SU support until 1991

4 Nicaragua US supported dictator Anastasio Somoza
1979- Sandinista rebels led by Daniel Ortega overthrew Somoza (rebels were supported by both SU and US) Sandinistas gave assistance to rebels in El Salvador To help fight rebels in El Salvador, US supported Contras, Nicaraguan anti-Communists Civil war in Nicaragua lasted for 10 more years

5 Middle East- Iran US supported Shah Pahlavi- modernized Iran and allowed western oil interests but most Iranians lived in poverty Due to massive opposition, the shah fled Iran in 1979. He was replaced by Ayatollah Ruholla Khomeini, a strict Islamic reformer

6 Young Islamic revolutionaries took hostage 60 Americans from the embassy for 444 days
War between Iran and Iraq (secular state governed by Saddam Hussein) Lasting legacy of hatred of U.S. by Iranian government

7 Afghanistan In late 1970’s a revolt threatened to topple the communist regime in Afghanistan SU invaded in 1979 Rebel forces, aided by US weapons and funding, fought the Soviets until 1989 when the Soviets withdrew

8 The Cold War Thaws Chapter 33.5

9 Soviet Policy Nikita Khrushchev- Became Soviet premier after Stalin died- began process of destalinization Put down the democratic revolt in Hungary in 1956, but left office in 1964 after the Cuban Missile Crisis Leonid Brezhnev- adopted repressive policies similar to Stalin’s Put down reforms in Czechoslovakia in 1968

10 Brinkmanship to Détente
During 1950’s and 1960’s, US policy of containment led to many conflicts around the globe In 1970’s President Richard Nixon began a policy of détente, or lessening of Cold War tensions In 1972, Nixon and Premier Brezhnev signed the SALT I treaty to limit the number of nuclear missiles each country could have In 1980’s President Reagan moved away from détente and back toward military buildup and an increase in military spending

11 Differing viewpoints of Reagan

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