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Former Communist Countries, the USSR, and Russia.

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Presentation on theme: "Former Communist Countries, the USSR, and Russia."— Presentation transcript:

1 Former Communist Countries, the USSR, and Russia

2 Former/Current Communist Countries What countries? What countries? USSR USSR Eastern European Satellites Eastern European Satellites Yugoslavia Yugoslavia China China 2nd echelon: Romania, Bulgaria, Albania 2nd echelon: Romania, Bulgaria, Albania

3 4 Key Questions Processes: How are decisions made in the Commy world? Processes: How are decisions made in the Commy world? Policies: What are their public policies? Policies: What are their public policies? Context: What contemporary/historical domestic and international factors shape development? Context: What contemporary/historical domestic and international factors shape development? Performance: What are the outcomes of policies? Performance: What are the outcomes of policies? Hauss: Before we do any of this, we must realize that conventional political science goes out the window, and we treat the Communist world with a “healthy dose of skepticism.” Hauss: Before we do any of this, we must realize that conventional political science goes out the window, and we treat the Communist world with a “healthy dose of skepticism.”

4 Karl Marx Misunderstood in U.S. Misunderstood in U.S. Saw situation in 19 th Cty. Europe, deemed it “subhuman;” really a humanist Saw situation in 19 th Cty. Europe, deemed it “subhuman;” really a humanist From a wealthy German Jewish family From a wealthy German Jewish family Moved from Germany  France  UK, met Friedrich Engels in Paris, Marx impressed Moved from Germany  France  UK, met Friedrich Engels in Paris, Marx impressed Wrote “The Communist Manifesto,” “Das Kapital”: History is a process of class conflict over the distribution of economic power. Wrote “The Communist Manifesto,” “Das Kapital”: History is a process of class conflict over the distribution of economic power. The “State” e.g. bureaucracy, police, army protects the “haves” (bourgeoisie) over the “have-nots” (proletariat) The “State” e.g. bureaucracy, police, army protects the “haves” (bourgeoisie) over the “have-nots” (proletariat) Religion= opium of the masses, creates false hopes and expectations Religion= opium of the masses, creates false hopes and expectations

5 More Marx Capitalism is exploitative; creates inequality  alienation  class consciousness Capitalism is exploitative; creates inequality  alienation  class consciousness 2 things help class consciousness develop: mass education and political freedom 2 things help class consciousness develop: mass education and political freedom Elections are a survival strategy of the bourgeoisie Elections are a survival strategy of the bourgeoisie Assumes worldwide revolution will be self-supporting, but Marx forgot about nationalism (laborers in Italy not necessarily similar to those in France) Assumes worldwide revolution will be self-supporting, but Marx forgot about nationalism (laborers in Italy not necessarily similar to those in France)

6 Vladimir Lenin ( ) and the 1917 Revolutions Actually 2 revolutions in 1917 Actually 2 revolutions in st : Provisional government led by Kerensky after Czar Nicholas II abdicates 1 st : Provisional government led by Kerensky after Czar Nicholas II abdicates 2 nd: Communist “October Revolution,” but happened 11/9/17. 2 nd: Communist “October Revolution,” but happened 11/9/17. Second one broke the “rules;” supposed to go from feudalism  capitalism  communism Second one broke the “rules;” supposed to go from feudalism  capitalism  communism Marx: Revolution required to establish equality, proletariat overthrows bourgeoisie, BUT ONLY AFTER TIME Marx: Revolution required to establish equality, proletariat overthrows bourgeoisie, BUT ONLY AFTER TIME Lenin: Revolution can be encouraged, promoted by “professional revolutionary vanguard” Lenin: Revolution can be encouraged, promoted by “professional revolutionary vanguard” Developed New Economic Policy (NEP) which actually encouraged capitalism so the Communists could establish communism Developed New Economic Policy (NEP) which actually encouraged capitalism so the Communists could establish communism About 300 members from the Central Committee, meets twice a year and chooses the Politburo. About 300 members from the Central Committee, meets twice a year and chooses the Politburo. Politburo—about 12 members, standing executive, ran the country on a day- to-day basis Politburo—about 12 members, standing executive, ran the country on a day- to-day basis Politburo became the key decision-making organization. Made up of nomenklatura (political/economic elite) Politburo became the key decision-making organization. Made up of nomenklatura (political/economic elite) Head of Politburo: General Secretary Head of Politburo: General Secretary

7 Joseph Stalin ( ) 1 st goal: Defeat Leon Trotsky for party leadership after Lenin died 1 st goal: Defeat Leon Trotsky for party leadership after Lenin died Mission: Make USSR powerful Mission: Make USSR powerful NEP replaced with collective farms, private ownership banned. Kulaks protest and die. NEP replaced with collective farms, private ownership banned. Kulaks protest and die. Consolidated power by killing subordinates like Kirov (1934) Consolidated power by killing subordinates like Kirov (1934) At what cost? 20,000,000+ lives At what cost? 20,000,000+ lives “Five Year Plans” set ambitious goals for heavy industry: oil, steel, electricity. “Five Year Plans” set ambitious goals for heavy industry: oil, steel, electricity. Gosplan, state planning committee, carries out others 5 year plans. Gosplan, state planning committee, carries out others 5 year plans. Industrialization at any cost—terror state Industrialization at any cost—terror state Show Trials: Kamenev, Zinoviev, military leaders Show Trials: Kamenev, Zinoviev, military leaders Signed Non-Aggression Pact with Germany, 1939 Signed Non-Aggression Pact with Germany, 1939 Continued purges after war Continued purges after war

8 Communist Party Organization

9 Truman “loses China” in 1949 Mao Tse-Tung’s Communists defeat Chiang Kai-shek Mao Tse-Tung’s Communists defeat Chiang Kai-shek Mao applies Marxism within the context of China Mao applies Marxism within the context of China Revolution begins with peasants, not workers Revolution begins with peasants, not workers

10 The Illusion of Socialist Harmony 1948: Yugoslavia bucks USSR leadership under Marshal Tito 1948: Yugoslavia bucks USSR leadership under Marshal Tito 1956: Revolution suppressed in Hungary, Hungarians killed 1956: Revolution suppressed in Hungary, Hungarians killed 1958: China (Taiwan, India-China conflict): USSR does not come to rescue, will not provide nuclear weapons 1958: China (Taiwan, India-China conflict): USSR does not come to rescue, will not provide nuclear weapons Early 1980s: Solidarity movement in Poland (result of exposure to civil society, labor movement) Early 1980s: Solidarity movement in Poland (result of exposure to civil society, labor movement) 1989: System demise as Yugoslavian republics fight for independence 1989: System demise as Yugoslavian republics fight for independence

11 Yugoslavia Tito dies in 1980, no charismatic leader replaces him Tito dies in 1980, no charismatic leader replaces him 3-4 leaders control Consul of Leadership 3-4 leaders control Consul of Leadership Break up in Break up in Slovenia & Croatia—”We’re prosperous, we want independence Slovenia & Croatia—”We’re prosperous, we want independence Germany 1 st to recognize Croatia Germany 1 st to recognize Croatia Serbia claims rest of Yugoslavia is under their control Serbia claims rest of Yugoslavia is under their control Bosnia-Herzegovina: hotbed of diversity. 3 ethnic groups, all hate each other and none dominant (31% Serb 45% Muslim 16% Croat) Dayton Accord Bosnia-Herzegovina: hotbed of diversity. 3 ethnic groups, all hate each other and none dominant (31% Serb 45% Muslim 16% Croat) Dayton Accord Macedonia: Independent Macedonia: Independent Kosovo, Vojvodina: autonomous (Kosovo ethnically composed of Albanians) Kosovo, Vojvodina: autonomous (Kosovo ethnically composed of Albanians)

12 Cold War Capitalist and socialist ideological conflict fought over third-party turf Capitalist and socialist ideological conflict fought over third-party turf 1948 Arab-Israeli-Palestinian War 1948 Arab-Israeli-Palestinian War 1956 Suez Crisis 1956 Suez Crisis Conflicts in Vietnam, Angola Conflicts in Vietnam, Angola Begins to unravel with détente, Berlin Wall falls in 1989 Begins to unravel with détente, Berlin Wall falls in 1989 Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia break away in 1991 Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia break away in 1991 Cold War over, but..disturbing trends Cold War over, but..disturbing trends 1995: Poles didn’t reelect Walesa 1995: Poles didn’t reelect Walesa Communists big winner in Russian Duma Communists big winner in Russian Duma

13 GDP and Population Data

14 Russia

15 The Russian Federation Cold climate; 50N latitude and above Cold climate; 50N latitude and above Pop: 141 million (-0.3%/year) Pop: 141 million (-0.3%/year) 76% Urban, 79.8% “Russian” 76% Urban, 79.8% “Russian” Poor ($12,240 GNP per capita) Poor ($12,240 GNP per capita) 82% speaks Russian. Ethnic diversity has role in politics 82% speaks Russian. Ethnic diversity has role in politics Literacy: 99% men, 97% women Literacy: 99% men, 97% women Extremely rich in minerals, oil, gas, timber, gold, iron Extremely rich in minerals, oil, gas, timber, gold, iron Lacks capital and technical expertise to use resources Lacks capital and technical expertise to use resources Life expectancy: 64.4 (men 59/women 73) Life expectancy: 64.4 (men 59/women 73) Health crisis: 1/5 children healthy, death rate up 20% since ’92, Russia budgets <1% of its budget for health (USA 12%) Health crisis: 1/5 children healthy, death rate up 20% since ’92, Russia budgets <1% of its budget for health (USA 12%) Heart disease, cancer rates very high Heart disease, cancer rates very high ECHR member but not EU member, abolished death penalty! ECHR member but not EU member, abolished death penalty!

16 Russian History : Peter the Great travels to Europe, builds navy : Peter the Great travels to Europe, builds navy : Catherine the Great, enlightened despot : Catherine the Great, enlightened despot : Russia loses Crimean War : Russia loses Crimean War 1861: Serfs freed by Alexander II 1861: Serfs freed by Alexander II : War with Japan, Revolution #1 and Constitution : War with Japan, Revolution #1 and Constitution 1914: Russia enters WWI to help Serbia, Triple Entente obligations 1914: Russia enters WWI to help Serbia, Triple Entente obligations 1917: Revolution, Czar overthrown, October Bolshevik Revolution, Peace of Brest- Litovsk 1917: Revolution, Czar overthrown, October Bolshevik Revolution, Peace of Brest- Litovsk : Russian Civil War between “reds” and “whites”—”reds” win : Russian Civil War between “reds” and “whites”—”reds” win 1924: Lenin dies 1924: Lenin dies : Stalin in power, 30 million killed in war/opposition : Stalin in power, 30 million killed in war/opposition : World War II, aka “Great Patriotic War.” : Russia allied w/US&UK : World War II, aka “Great Patriotic War.” : Russia allied w/US&UK 1953:Khrushchev promotes “peaceful coexistence,” makes “secret speech” 1953:Khrushchev promotes “peaceful coexistence,” makes “secret speech” 1955: Warsaw Pact 1955: Warsaw Pact 1962: Cuban Missile Crisis 1962: Cuban Missile Crisis 1964: Brezhnev boots out Khrushchev 1964: Brezhnev boots out Khrushchev

17 Modern Russian History 1979: Invasion of Afghanistan—Soviet “Vietnam” 1979: Invasion of Afghanistan—Soviet “Vietnam” 1984 and 1985: Andropov, Chernenko die 1984 and 1985: Andropov, Chernenko die 1985: Gorbachev becomes Premier of USSR 1985: Gorbachev becomes Premier of USSR 1991: Yeltsin takes over, Russian Federation formed, Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) formed 1991: Yeltsin takes over, Russian Federation formed, Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) formed 1993: New Constitution 1993: New Constitution 1999/2000: Yeltsin resigns, Vladimir Putin becomes President, elected 3 mos. later 1999/2000: Yeltsin resigns, Vladimir Putin becomes President, elected 3 mos. later 2004: Putin re-elected, Beslan School Massacre 2004: Putin re-elected, Beslan School Massacre 2008: Medvedev elected; Putin appointed Prime Minister 2008: Medvedev elected; Putin appointed Prime Minister

18 Recent History—Chechen Terrorism Moscow theatre hostage crisis, 2002 Moscow theatre hostage crisis, 2002 Beslan School Massacre, 2004 Beslan School Massacre, Moscow Metro bombings 2010 Moscow Metro bombings

19 Moscow Theater Hostage Crisis The Moscow theatre hostage crisis, also known as the 2002 Nord-Ost siege, [1] was the seizure of a crowded Moscow theatre on 23 October 2002 by some 40 to 50 armed Chechens who claimed allegiance to the Islamist militant separatist movement in Chechnya. They took 850 hostages and demanded the withdrawal of Russian forces from Chechnya and an end to the Second Chechen War. The siege was officially led by Movsar Barayev. After a two-and-a-half day siege, Russian Spetsnaz forces pumped an unknown chemical agent (thought to be fentanyl, 3- methylfentanyl), into the building's ventilation system and raided it. [1] The Moscow theatre hostage crisis, also known as the 2002 Nord-Ost siege, [1] was the seizure of a crowded Moscow theatre on 23 October 2002 by some 40 to 50 armed Chechens who claimed allegiance to the Islamist militant separatist movement in Chechnya. They took 850 hostages and demanded the withdrawal of Russian forces from Chechnya and an end to the Second Chechen War. The siege was officially led by Movsar Barayev. After a two-and-a-half day siege, Russian Spetsnaz forces pumped an unknown chemical agent (thought to be fentanyl, 3- methylfentanyl), into the building's ventilation system and raided it. [1]Nord-Ost [1]MoscowtheatreChechensIslamist militant separatist movement in Chechnya RussianChechnyaSecond Chechen WarMovsar Barayev Spetsnazunknown chemical agent3- methylfentanylventilation [1]Nord-Ost [1]MoscowtheatreChechensIslamist militant separatist movement in Chechnya RussianChechnyaSecond Chechen WarMovsar Barayev Spetsnazunknown chemical agent3- methylfentanylventilation [1] Officially, 39 of the attackers were killed by Russian forces, along with at least 129 and possibly many more of the hostages (including nine foreigners). All but a few [2] of the hostages who died during the siege were killed by the toxic substance pumped into the theatre to subdue the militants. [3][4] The use of the gas was "widely condemned as heavy handed". Physicians in Moscow "condemned the secrecy surrounding the identity of the gas" that prevented them from saving more lives. [5] Roughly, 170 people died in all. Officially, 39 of the attackers were killed by Russian forces, along with at least 129 and possibly many more of the hostages (including nine foreigners). All but a few [2] of the hostages who died during the siege were killed by the toxic substance pumped into the theatre to subdue the militants. [3][4] The use of the gas was "widely condemned as heavy handed". Physicians in Moscow "condemned the secrecy surrounding the identity of the gas" that prevented them from saving more lives. [5] Roughly, 170 people died in all. [2] [3][4]"widely condemned as heavy handed". [5] [2] [3][4]"widely condemned as heavy handed". [5]

20 Beslan School Massacre The Beslan school hostage crisis (also referred to as the Beslan school siege or Beslan massacre) [2][3][4] was a three day hostage- taking of over 1,100 people which ended in the deaths of over 300. It began when a group of armed mostly Ingush and Chechen terrorists took more than 1,100 people (including 777 children [5] ) hostage on 1 September 2004, at School Number One (SNO) in the town of Beslan, North Ossetia, an autonomous republic in the North Caucasus region of the Russian Federation. The hostage taking was carried out by a group sent by the Chechen warlord Shamil Basayev, which issued demands of an end to the Second Chechen War. On the third day of the standoff, Russian security forces stormed the building, using tanks, flamethrower rockets, and other heavy weapons. [6] A series of explosions shook the school, followed by a fire which engulfed the building and a chaotic gunbattle between the hostage-takers and Russian security forces. Ultimately, at least 334 hostages were killed, including 186 children; [7][8] hundreds more were injured and many were reported missing. The Beslan school hostage crisis (also referred to as the Beslan school siege or Beslan massacre) [2][3][4] was a three day hostage- taking of over 1,100 people which ended in the deaths of over 300. It began when a group of armed mostly Ingush and Chechen terrorists took more than 1,100 people (including 777 children [5] ) hostage on 1 September 2004, at School Number One (SNO) in the town of Beslan, North Ossetia, an autonomous republic in the North Caucasus region of the Russian Federation. The hostage taking was carried out by a group sent by the Chechen warlord Shamil Basayev, which issued demands of an end to the Second Chechen War. On the third day of the standoff, Russian security forces stormed the building, using tanks, flamethrower rockets, and other heavy weapons. [6] A series of explosions shook the school, followed by a fire which engulfed the building and a chaotic gunbattle between the hostage-takers and Russian security forces. Ultimately, at least 334 hostages were killed, including 186 children; [7][8] hundreds more were injured and many were reported missing. [2][3][4]IngushChechenterrorists [5]hostage BeslanNorth Ossetiaautonomous republicNorth CaucasusRussian FederationgroupwarlordShamil BasayevSecond Chechen WarstandoffRussiantanksflamethrower rockets [6] [7][8] [2][3][4]IngushChechenterrorists [5]hostage BeslanNorth Ossetiaautonomous republicNorth CaucasusRussian FederationgroupwarlordShamil BasayevSecond Chechen WarstandoffRussiantanksflamethrower rockets [6] [7][8] The tragedy led to security and political repercussions in Russia, most notably a series of federal government reforms consolidating power in the Kremlin and strengthening of the powers of the President of Russia. [9] According to American NGO Freedom House, these reforms consolidated Russia as a politically non-free, authoritarian state since the mid-2000s. [10][11] The tragedy led to security and political repercussions in Russia, most notably a series of federal government reforms consolidating power in the Kremlin and strengthening of the powers of the President of Russia. [9] According to American NGO Freedom House, these reforms consolidated Russia as a politically non-free, authoritarian state since the mid-2000s. [10][11]reformsKremlinPresident of Russia [9]AmericanNGOFreedom Houseauthoritarian2000s [10][11]reformsKremlinPresident of Russia [9]AmericanNGOFreedom Houseauthoritarian2000s [10][11] Russian President Vladimir Putin reappeared publicly during a hurried trip to the Beslan hospital in the early hours of September 4 to see several of the wounded victims in his only visit to Beslan. [113] He was later criticised for not meeting the families of victims. [104] After returning to Moscow, he ordered a two-day period of national mourning for September 6 and September 7, In his televised speech Putin paraphrased Joseph Stalin saying: "We showed ourselves to be weak. And the weak get beaten." [45] On the second day of mourning, an estimated 135,000 people joined a government-organised rally against terrorism on the Red Square in Moscow. [114] An estimated 40,000 people gathered in Saint Petersburg's Palace Square. [115] Russian President Vladimir Putin reappeared publicly during a hurried trip to the Beslan hospital in the early hours of September 4 to see several of the wounded victims in his only visit to Beslan. [113] He was later criticised for not meeting the families of victims. [104] After returning to Moscow, he ordered a two-day period of national mourning for September 6 and September 7, In his televised speech Putin paraphrased Joseph Stalin saying: "We showed ourselves to be weak. And the weak get beaten." [45] On the second day of mourning, an estimated 135,000 people joined a government-organised rally against terrorism on the Red Square in Moscow. [114] An estimated 40,000 people gathered in Saint Petersburg's Palace Square. [115] [113] [104]national mourningtelevisedspeechJoseph Stalin [45]rallyRed SquareMoscow [114]Saint PetersburgPalace Square [115] [113] [104]national mourningtelevisedspeechJoseph Stalin [45]rallyRed SquareMoscow [114]Saint PetersburgPalace Square [115] In the wake of Beslan, the government proceeded to toughen laws on terrorism and expand the powers of law enforcement agencies. [9] In the wake of Beslan, the government proceeded to toughen laws on terrorism and expand the powers of law enforcement agencies. [9]law enforcement agencies [9]law enforcement agencies [9] Increased security measures were introduced to Russian cities. More than 10,000 people without proper documents were detained by Moscow police in a "terrorist hunt". Colonel Magomet Tolboyev, a cosmonaut and Hero of the Russian Federation, was beaten in the street in Moscow because of his Chechen-sounding name. [116][117] The Russian public appeared to be generally supportive of increased security measures. A September 16, 2004 Levada-Center poll found 58% of Russians supporting stricter counter-terrorism laws and the death penalty for terrorism, while 33% would support banning all Chechens from entering Russian cities. [118][119] Increased security measures were introduced to Russian cities. More than 10,000 people without proper documents were detained by Moscow police in a "terrorist hunt". Colonel Magomet Tolboyev, a cosmonaut and Hero of the Russian Federation, was beaten in the street in Moscow because of his Chechen-sounding name. [116][117] The Russian public appeared to be generally supportive of increased security measures. A September 16, 2004 Levada-Center poll found 58% of Russians supporting stricter counter-terrorism laws and the death penalty for terrorism, while 33% would support banning all Chechens from entering Russian cities. [118][119]cosmonautHero of the Russian Federation [116][117]Levada-Centerpollcounter-terrorismdeath penaltyterrorism [118][119]cosmonautHero of the Russian Federation [116][117]Levada-Centerpollcounter-terrorismdeath penaltyterrorism [118][119] In addition, Vladimir Putin signed a law which replaces the direct election of the heads of the federal subjects of Russia with a system whereby they are proposed by the President of Russia and approved or disapproved by the elected legislative power bodies of the federal subjects. [120] The election system for the Russian Duma was also repeatedly amended, eliminating the election of State Duma members by single-mandate districts. [121] The Kremlin consolidated its control over the Russian media and increasingly attacked the non-governmental organizations (especially those foreign-founded). Critics allege that the Putin's circle of siloviki used the Beslan crisis as an excuse to increase their grip on Russia. [122] On September 16, 2004, the United States Secretary of State Colin Powell said that Russia was pulling back on democratic reforms. In addition, Vladimir Putin signed a law which replaces the direct election of the heads of the federal subjects of Russia with a system whereby they are proposed by the President of Russia and approved or disapproved by the elected legislative power bodies of the federal subjects. [120] The election system for the Russian Duma was also repeatedly amended, eliminating the election of State Duma members by single-mandate districts. [121] The Kremlin consolidated its control over the Russian media and increasingly attacked the non-governmental organizations (especially those foreign-founded). Critics allege that the Putin's circle of siloviki used the Beslan crisis as an excuse to increase their grip on Russia. [122] On September 16, 2004, the United States Secretary of State Colin Powell said that Russia was pulling back on democratic reforms.federal subjects of Russia [120]Duma [121]non-governmental organizationssiloviki [122]United States Secretary of StateColin Powellfederal subjects of Russia [120]Duma [121]non-governmental organizationssiloviki [122]United States Secretary of StateColin Powell

21 Historical Influences on Russian Political Tradition Absolute, centralized rule (tsars held absolute power) Absolute, centralized rule (tsars held absolute power) Extensive cultural heterogeneity (#1 cleavage in Russia) Extensive cultural heterogeneity (#1 cleavage in Russia) Slavophile v. Westernizer debate Slavophile v. Westernizer debate 20 th Century Revolutions 20 th Century Revolutions Orthodox religion—today trying to re- emerge, tiny religious minorities Orthodox religion—today trying to re- emerge, tiny religious minorities

22 The Gorbachev Era ( ) Reforms: Reforms: Perestroika—economic restructuring Perestroika—economic restructuring Glasnost—political reforms/openness Glasnost—political reforms/openness Gorbachev caught between liberals and hardliners—neither got what they wanted Gorbachev caught between liberals and hardliners—neither got what they wanted Embraced pragmatist foreign policy Embraced pragmatist foreign policy Acknowledged inefficiency and corruption of Soviet government Acknowledged inefficiency and corruption of Soviet government August ’91 coup; failed because few Soviet people supported it, Yeltsin stepping on tank, armed forces split, int’l pressure opposed coup August ’91 coup; failed because few Soviet people supported it, Yeltsin stepping on tank, armed forces split, int’l pressure opposed coup

23 Boris Yeltsin ( ) President of Russian Federation present; took over after USSR disintegrated President of Russian Federation present; took over after USSR disintegrated Called for open revolt against Leninism via “shock therapy” Called for open revolt against Leninism via “shock therapy” Asked for unrestricted foreign investment Asked for unrestricted foreign investment Privatized 70% of government retail commerce and services, rapidly encouraged reform to market system Privatized 70% of government retail commerce and services, rapidly encouraged reform to market system Land given to peasants as private property Land given to peasants as private property State/collective farms dissolved State/collective farms dissolved Political freedoms to all minorities & ethnic groups Political freedoms to all minorities & ethnic groups Weakened Communist Party (as did Gorbachev) Weakened Communist Party (as did Gorbachev)

24 Vladimir Putin Ex-KGB agent Ex-KGB agent Prime Minister, Prime Minister, Became President, 2000, elected 2000 and re-elected 2004 Became President, 2000, elected 2000 and re-elected 2004 Strongly went after Chechens, present (good and bad reasons) Strongly went after Chechens, present (good and bad reasons) Went after oligarchs that threatened him politically—including some like Berezovsky that supported his rise Went after oligarchs that threatened him politically—including some like Berezovsky that supported his rise Arrested Khodorkovsky (Yukos owner)— put him in cage for trial Arrested Khodorkovsky (Yukos owner)— put him in cage for trial Probably behind the polonium poisoning of ex-FSB member and journalist Alexander Litvenenko and shooting death of Anna Politkovskaya (Chechnya writer) Probably behind the polonium poisoning of ex-FSB member and journalist Alexander Litvenenko and shooting death of Anna Politkovskaya (Chechnya writer)

25 Putin’s Authoritarian Actions, Created 7 federal districts with Presidential envoys/plenipotentiaries that report directly to the President, CREATED “POWER VERTICAL”—oversee federal implementation (good and bad reasons) Created 7 federal districts with Presidential envoys/plenipotentiaries that report directly to the President, CREATED “POWER VERTICAL”—oversee federal implementation (good and bad reasons) President now appoints all regional governors, who are confirmed by regional legislatures President now appoints all regional governors, who are confirmed by regional legislatures Eliminated “AGAINST ALL” option on Russian ballots Eliminated “AGAINST ALL” option on Russian ballots Governors don’t serve in Federation Council anymore—newly appointed pro-Putin governors choose 1 of the 2 representatives—giving the President control of the FC Governors don’t serve in Federation Council anymore—newly appointed pro-Putin governors choose 1 of the 2 representatives—giving the President control of the FC Moved Constitutional Court to St. Petersburg from Moscow to limit judiciary influence Moved Constitutional Court to St. Petersburg from Moscow to limit judiciary influence Got Duma to pass electoral reform in 2007—switched from Mixed-Member proportional to fully proportional Duma elections with 7% threshold to kill small parties Got Duma to pass electoral reform in 2007—switched from Mixed-Member proportional to fully proportional Duma elections with 7% threshold to kill small parties Created “Potemkin Parties” like “Just Russia” to dilute the vote even further—these parties and candidates secretly support Putin but draw votes from other parties, keeping them under the threshold Created “Potemkin Parties” like “Just Russia” to dilute the vote even further—these parties and candidates secretly support Putin but draw votes from other parties, keeping them under the threshold Restricted media through censorship and threats—took over TV6 and NTV, also newspapers Restricted media through censorship and threats—took over TV6 and NTV, also newspapers Created a dominant party (United Russia) Created a dominant party (United Russia) Gary Kasparov and “Other Russia” cracked down on—demonstrations limited Gary Kasparov and “Other Russia” cracked down on—demonstrations limited Parties must register. To do so, they must have 50,000 members (it used to be 10,000), and gather 200,000 signatures to actually run Parties must register. To do so, they must have 50,000 members (it used to be 10,000), and gather 200,000 signatures to actually run Candidates removed from ballot for minor, technical reasons Candidates removed from ballot for minor, technical reasons 2006 NGO registration law restricted NGO’s abilities to operate 2006 NGO registration law restricted NGO’s abilities to operate PUPPETEER with Medvedev—his handpicked successor PUPPETEER with Medvedev—his handpicked successor Stepped up arrest of Chechens in Moscow Stepped up arrest of Chechens in Moscow Uses Nashi to further “Cult of Personality” Uses Nashi to further “Cult of Personality”

26 Building a Cult of Personality: “A Man Like Putin”/ Nashi A Man Like Putin I want a man like Putin, who's full of strength. I want a man like Putin, who doesn't drink. I want a man like Putin, who won't make me sad. I want a man like Putin, who's full of strength. I want a man like Putin, who doesn't drink. I want a man like Putin, who won't make me sad. / sound-tracks- music-without-borders-a- man-like-putin-pbs / sound-tracks- music-without-borders-a- man-like-putin-pbs / sound-tracks- music-without-borders-a- man-like-putin-pbs / sound-tracks- music-without-borders-a- man-like-putin-pbs watch?v=YR3kW0p32cc watch?v=YR3kW0p32cc watch?v=YR3kW0p32cc watch?v=YR3kW0p32ccNASHI Every summer, Nashi runs recruiting camps all across Russia. New members watch propaganda films and receive basic military-style training, according to Nashi leader Vasily Yakimenko. Every summer, Nashi runs recruiting camps all across Russia. New members watch propaganda films and receive basic military-style training, according to Nashi leader Vasily Yakimenko. In July 2007, Nashi's annual camp located 200 miles outside Moscow was attended by over 10,000 Nashi members. Some reports mention the use of the camp to improve Russia's demographics, where twenty tents were set up in order to allow twenty newlywed couples to sleep together. In July 2007, Nashi's annual camp located 200 miles outside Moscow was attended by over 10,000 Nashi members. Some reports mention the use of the camp to improve Russia's demographics, where twenty tents were set up in order to allow twenty newlywed couples to sleep together.

27 Dmitri Medvedev President 2008-present Putin’s successor Putin’s successor Jammed through extension of Presidential term to 6 yrs and eliminated 2 term limit (2009—fastest amendment in Russian Constitutional history) Jammed through extension of Presidential term to 6 yrs and eliminated 2 term limit (2009—fastest amendment in Russian Constitutional history)

28 The 1993 Constitution Borrows from France, USA, Germany Borrows from France, USA, Germany Multiparty system Multiparty system Bicameral Parliament Bicameral Parliament Multipolar points of power: Head of Duma, Director of Federation Council Multipolar points of power: Head of Duma, Director of Federation Council Creates strong presidency: Elected directly, not party- dominated Creates strong presidency: Elected directly, not party- dominated 2-ballot system. 2-ballot system. President most significant locus of power. President may disband Parliament (unlike old Soviet Constitution) President most significant locus of power. President may disband Parliament (unlike old Soviet Constitution) 3 types of votes allowed: referendum (Yeltsin job performance), Duma elections, Presidential elections 3 types of votes allowed: referendum (Yeltsin job performance), Duma elections, Presidential elections

29 4 Types of Russian Subdivisions 21 Republics, ethnic enclaves 21 Republics, ethnic enclaves 52 Oblasts (regions) mostly populated by Russians 52 Oblasts (regions) mostly populated by Russians 6 Krais (Territories) 6 Krais (Territories) 10 autonomous districts called Okrugs 10 autonomous districts called Okrugs 83 regions now—some consolidated 83 regions now—some consolidated

30 The Russian Parliament State Duma (450) State Duma (450) All 450 elected by proportional representation All 450 elected by proportional representation Must pass 7% threshold to get any representation Must pass 7% threshold to get any representation Putin changed MMP to PR and upped 5% limit to 7% (2007) Putin changed MMP to PR and upped 5% limit to 7% (2007) Passes bills Passes bills Approves budget Approves budget Confirms Presidential nominees to Cabinet** Confirms Presidential nominees to Cabinet** Can vote no confidence in a Cabinet Can vote no confidence in a Cabinet Can override Presidential veto with 2/3 majority Can override Presidential veto with 2/3 majority 5 year term as of 2009 Amendments 5 year term as of 2009 Amendments Federation Council (178)--2 members from 89 regions; 1 chosen by legislatures, 1 by governor, subject to approval Federation Council (178)--2 members from 89 regions; 1 chosen by legislatures, 1 by governor, subject to approval Special powers accorded only to the Federation Council are: Special powers accorded only to the Federation Council are: Approval of changes in borders between subjects of the Russian Federation; Approval of changes in borders between subjects of the Russian Federation; Approval of a decree of the President of the Russian Federation on the introduction of martial law; Approval of a decree of the President of the Russian Federation on the introduction of martial law;decreemartial lawdecreemartial law Approval of a decree of the President of the Russian Federation on the introduction of a state of emergency; Approval of a decree of the President of the Russian Federation on the introduction of a state of emergency; Deciding on the possibility of using the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation outside the territory of the Russian Federation; Deciding on the possibility of using the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation outside the territory of the Russian Federation; Declaring of elections of the President of the Russian Federation; Declaring of elections of the President of the Russian Federation; Impeachment of the President of the Russian Federation; Impeachment of the President of the Russian Federation; appointment of judges of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation, of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation, of the Higher Arbitration Court of the Russian Federation; appointment of judges of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation, of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation, of the Higher Arbitration Court of the Russian Federation; Appointment and dismissal of the Attorney General of the Russian Federation; Appointment and dismissal of the Attorney General of the Russian Federation; Appointment and dismissal of Deputy Chairman and half of the auditors of the Accounting Chamber. Appointment and dismissal of Deputy Chairman and half of the auditors of the Accounting Chamber.

31 Russian Dual Executive President: Dmitri Medvedev President: Dmitri Medvedev Recent movements against full democracy: Regional governors now appointed and must be confirmed by the regional legislatures Recent movements against full democracy: Regional governors now appointed and must be confirmed by the regional legislatures Putin ( ): Putin ( ): Cracked down on Muslim, independence-desiring Chechnya, especially after Beslan (350 dead) Cracked down on Muslim, independence-desiring Chechnya, especially after Beslan (350 dead) Powers: Powers: 1) Appoint PM and Cabinet 1) Appoint PM and Cabinet 2) Issue decrees with the force of law 2) Issue decrees with the force of law 3) Dissolve the Duma 3) Dissolve the Duma Prime Minister: Vladimir Putin Prime Minister: Vladimir Putin PMs must be confirmed by the Duma PMs must be confirmed by the Duma 3 rejections=President can dissolve Duma (even if same person all 3 times) 3 rejections=President can dissolve Duma (even if same person all 3 times) Death or incapicitation of President: PM assumes duties, elections within 3 mos. (12/31/99—Yeltsin/Putin) Death or incapicitation of President: PM assumes duties, elections within 3 mos. (12/31/99—Yeltsin/Putin)

32 Russian Presidential Election, March 2000 Vladimir Putin, Unity Party 53% Vladimir Putin, Unity Party 53% Gennady Zyuganov, Communist 29% Gennady Zyuganov, Communist 29% Grigory Yavlinksky, Yabloko 5.8% Grigory Yavlinksky, Yabloko 5.8% Vladimir Zhironovsky, Lib Dem 2.7% Vladimir Zhironovsky, Lib Dem 2.7% Not completely fair or free but better than before Not completely fair or free but better than before No run-off required due to Putin > 50% No run-off required due to Putin > 50%

33 Russian Presidential Election 2004 Putin 71% Putin 71% Kharitonov (CPRF) 14% Kharitonov (CPRF) 14% Against All 3.5% Against All 3.5%

34 2008 Russian Presidential Election Candidates Nominating parties Votes % Candidates Nominating parties Votes % Dmitry Medvedev United Russia, Agrarian Party, Fair Russia, Russian Ecological Party - "The Greens" and Civilian Power. 52,530, % Dmitry Medvedev United Russia, Agrarian Party, Fair Russia, Russian Ecological Party - "The Greens" and Civilian Power. 52,530, %Dmitry MedvedevUnited RussiaAgrarian PartyFair Russia Russian Ecological Party - "The Greens"Civilian PowerDmitry MedvedevUnited RussiaAgrarian PartyFair Russia Russian Ecological Party - "The Greens"Civilian Power Gennady Zyuganov Communist Party of the Russian Federation 13,243, % Gennady Zyuganov Communist Party of the Russian Federation 13,243, % Gennady ZyuganovCommunist Party of the Russian Federation Gennady ZyuganovCommunist Party of the Russian Federation Vladimir Zhirinovsky Liberal Democratic Party of Russia 6,988,510 Vladimir Zhirinovsky Liberal Democratic Party of Russia 6,988,510 Vladimir ZhirinovskyLiberal Democratic Party of Russia Vladimir ZhirinovskyLiberal Democratic Party of Russia 9.35 % 9.35 % Andrei Bogdanov Democratic Party of Russia 968,344 Andrei Bogdanov Democratic Party of Russia 968,344 Andrei BogdanovDemocratic Party of Russia Andrei BogdanovDemocratic Party of Russia 1.30% 1.30% Invalid ballots 1,015, % Invalid ballots 1,015, %

35 What are the goals of the French and Russian Presidential Election Systems? Popular legitimacy Popular legitimacy Popular mandate Popular mandate Prevent electoral/institutional gridlock Prevent electoral/institutional gridlock Policy leadership Policy leadership Independence from legislature Independence from legislature Stability Stability Strong Executive Strong Executive Inclusion of a wide range of parties Inclusion of a wide range of parties National unity National unity Encourages coalition building among the electorate Encourages coalition building among the electorate Increases voter turnout, hopefully decreases apathy and increases efficacy Increases voter turnout, hopefully decreases apathy and increases efficacy

36 Russian Judiciary Constitutional Court—19 judges--determines Constitutionality of laws, appointed by President and confirmed by Federation Council Constitutional Court—19 judges--determines Constitutionality of laws, appointed by President and confirmed by Federation Council Supreme Court—hears appeals for civil, criminal, and administrative cases, oversees lower courts Supreme Court—hears appeals for civil, criminal, and administrative cases, oversees lower courts Supreme Arbitration Court—ECN/BUS matters Supreme Arbitration Court—ECN/BUS matters All regions but Chechnya: Trial by jury by 2007 All regions but Chechnya: Trial by jury by 2007

37 Political Parties in Russia Multiparty system represents wide range of ideological viewpoints Multiparty system represents wide range of ideological viewpoints 30 parties, 5 with substantial following 30 parties, 5 with substantial following United Russia (Putin’s party, won 221 of 450 Duma seats in 2003). Put together by Boris Berezovsky to support Putin in Pro-Putin, no clear ideology United Russia (Putin’s party, won 221 of 450 Duma seats in 2003). Put together by Boris Berezovsky to support Putin in Pro-Putin, no clear ideology Communists—2 nd strongest, 12.6% of vote, 51 seats in Duma. Gennady Zyuganov is leader. Communists—2 nd strongest, 12.6% of vote, 51 seats in Duma. Gennady Zyuganov is leader. Reform Parties: Reform Parties: Yabloko—leader Grigory Yavlinski, strong pro-Democracy stance. 4 Duma seats, only 4.4% of vote, no PR seats Yabloko—leader Grigory Yavlinski, strong pro-Democracy stance. 4 Duma seats, only 4.4% of vote, no PR seats Union of Right Forces—”right in understanding truth”: backs privatization, only 3 seats Union of Right Forces—”right in understanding truth”: backs privatization, only 3 seats Radical dangerous parties: Radical dangerous parties: Liberal Democrats (Zhironovksy’s party, extremist/Communist): 11% of vote, 37 seats. Liberal Democrats (Zhironovksy’s party, extremist/Communist): 11% of vote, 37 seats.

38 Russian Political Culture: Influences Geography: ethnic diversity, borders vastly different countries with different political cultures and customs. Historical need for warm water ports Geography: ethnic diversity, borders vastly different countries with different political cultures and customs. Historical need for warm water ports Eastern Orthodoxy: Western countries had Renaissance, Reformation, Scientific Revolution, Enlightenment, separation of church and state, and spheres of privacy free from control of the state (civil society). Russia didn’t. Eastern Orthodoxy: Western countries had Renaissance, Reformation, Scientific Revolution, Enlightenment, separation of church and state, and spheres of privacy free from control of the state (civil society). Russia didn’t. Equality of Results (impacts development of capitalism) Equality of Results (impacts development of capitalism) Hostility towards the government (despite obeisance) Hostility towards the government (despite obeisance) Importance of nationality (discrimination common— Baltic people “civil,” Muslim-Turks “barbaric”) Importance of nationality (discrimination common— Baltic people “civil,” Muslim-Turks “barbaric”)

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40 Political Culture and Participation –Personalized parties of the early years of Russian Federation have almost disappeared –United Russia, a party of power, has established itself to survive elections and leadership changes –Just Russia, fake competition created by the power elite, will not contest for real power –Another Russia not being allowed to emerge –Communist Party of the Russian Federation is a nationalistic, social democratic (self- labeled) party that is a nation-wide organization losing support everywhere –Yabloko is a reformist party favoring democracy and a social welfare system that is also losing support –Union of Right Forces is a reformist party favoring drastic economic restructuring which is also losing popularity –Liberal Democrats are an anti-Semitic, super nationalistic party that earns headlines more easily than votes

41 Russian Internal Problems Oligarchs: Wild fortunes amassed under Yeltsin, Putin has cracked down some--Berezovsky now in exile, Khodorvsky (Yukos) arrested, Yukos taxed into bankruptcy Oligarchs: Wild fortunes amassed under Yeltsin, Putin has cracked down some--Berezovsky now in exile, Khodorvsky (Yukos) arrested, Yukos taxed into bankruptcy Russian mafia—”protection money,” money laundering, murder bankers, businessmen, Duma members Russian mafia—”protection money,” money laundering, murder bankers, businessmen, Duma members Russian media—Putin has suppressed some freedom of the press. NTV, only independent TV channel, taken over. Russian media—Putin has suppressed some freedom of the press. NTV, only independent TV channel, taken over.

42 Russian Political Culture #1: DESIRE FOR ORDER & STABILITY--STATISM #1: DESIRE FOR ORDER & STABILITY--STATISM Russians will take a while to adapt to free market (Spanish and Germans have learned) Russians will take a while to adapt to free market (Spanish and Germans have learned) Democracy weak; “kleptocracy” Democracy weak; “kleptocracy” State has been unable to improve living conditions, leads to pessimism about democracy now State has been unable to improve living conditions, leads to pessimism about democracy now Some Russians still hostile towards West (Zhironovsky) Some Russians still hostile towards West (Zhironovsky) Nostalgia for old Soviet military Nostalgia for old Soviet military Voter turnout 65% in 2004 election—100% under Soviets Voter turnout 65% in 2004 election—100% under Soviets

43 Russian/Soviet Foreign Policy Chechnya problem: want them recognized as terrorists Chechnya problem: want them recognized as terrorists South Ossetia conflict, 2008 South Ossetia conflict, 2008 Don’t like NATO expansion or US missile defense, recently accepted as a NATO “partner” Don’t like NATO expansion or US missile defense, recently accepted as a NATO “partner” Détente  Entente Détente  Entente CIS relations still important CIS relations still important Meddling in Ukraine elections, 2004 Meddling in Ukraine elections, 2004 G-8 member G-8 member Bidding to join WTO Bidding to join WTO

44 Learning Objectives After mastering the concepts presented in this chapter, you will be able to: Comprehend the development of communist doctrine and ideology in Europe. Comprehend the development of communist doctrine and ideology in Europe. Differentiate among and define the following: Marxism, Leninism, Stalinism, Totalitarianism Differentiate among and define the following: Marxism, Leninism, Stalinism, Totalitarianism Comprehend political and economic doctrines of Karl Marx on communism and class exploitation. Comprehend political and economic doctrines of Karl Marx on communism and class exploitation. Define Marxist theory and explain the following notions and terms: Historical materialism, Dialectics, Proletarian revolution Define Marxist theory and explain the following notions and terms: Historical materialism, Dialectics, Proletarian revolution Understand the role of Russian Revolution in 1917 in the development of communist regimes in Eastern Europe and beyond. Understand the role of Russian Revolution in 1917 in the development of communist regimes in Eastern Europe and beyond. Comparatively define socialism and communism. Comparatively define socialism and communism. Understand the notion of totalitarian regime and totalitarian form of governance. Understand the notion of totalitarian regime and totalitarian form of governance. Assess major differences between the command and free market economies. Assess major differences between the command and free market economies. Comparatively analyze similarities and differences between the USSR and the People’s Republic of China in managing economy and political process under communist ideology and party system. Comparatively analyze similarities and differences between the USSR and the People’s Republic of China in managing economy and political process under communist ideology and party system.

45 Learning Objectives After mastering the concepts presented in this chapter, you will be able to: Recognize the role of Vladimir Lenin, Joseph Stalin and Mao Zedong in the process of communist state formation and development. Recognize the role of Vladimir Lenin, Joseph Stalin and Mao Zedong in the process of communist state formation and development. Discuss the structure of the Communist Party and government institutions in the Soviet Union. Define the following terms: Nomenklatura, Central Committee, Politburo, General Secretary Discuss the structure of the Communist Party and government institutions in the Soviet Union. Define the following terms: Nomenklatura, Central Committee, Politburo, General Secretary Understand the role of Mikhail Gorbachev in the process of party, state and ideological reformation in the USSR. Define the following terms: Glasnost, Perestroika Understand the role of Mikhail Gorbachev in the process of party, state and ideological reformation in the USSR. Define the following terms: Glasnost, Perestroika Recognize factors that contribute to the collapse of communist regimes in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union. Recognize factors that contribute to the collapse of communist regimes in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union. Identify challenges of post-communist democratization in Eastern Europe. Identify challenges of post-communist democratization in Eastern Europe. Define social and political, including of revolutionary character movements in Hungary, Romania, Soviet Union, Poland and other countries against communism. Define social and political, including of revolutionary character movements in Hungary, Romania, Soviet Union, Poland and other countries against communism. Recognize the process of the USSR disintegration. Recognize the process of the USSR disintegration. Discuss the implications of the shock therapy in post-communist countries. Discuss the implications of the shock therapy in post-communist countries. Identify remaining communist regimes and discuss their political, economic and social challenges. Identify remaining communist regimes and discuss their political, economic and social challenges.

46 Learning Objectives After mastering the concepts presented in this chapter, you will be able to: Understand key factors of the historical formation of the Russian state in 19-20th centuries. Understand key factors of the historical formation of the Russian state in 19-20th centuries. Comprehend the development of communist doctrine and ideology in Russia. Comprehend the development of communist doctrine and ideology in Russia. Define key elements of the 1917 revolutions in Russia. Define the following: Define key elements of the 1917 revolutions in Russia. Define the following: Provisional Government Provisional Government Bolsheviks Bolsheviks Mensheviks Mensheviks Vladimir Lenin Vladimir Lenin Define Russian diversity, geography and current economic challenges. Define Russian diversity, geography and current economic challenges. Understand the process of political, economic and social developments of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). Understand the process of political, economic and social developments of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). Discuss the role of Joseph Stalin in the history of the USSR. Discuss the role of Joseph Stalin in the history of the USSR. Understand the necessity of creating the Comintern by Vladimir Lenin. Understand the necessity of creating the Comintern by Vladimir Lenin. Comprehend the impact of the following Soviet leaders on the political development of the USSR: Nikita Khrushchev, Leonid Brezhnev, Constantine Chernenko, Mikhail Gorbachev Comprehend the impact of the following Soviet leaders on the political development of the USSR: Nikita Khrushchev, Leonid Brezhnev, Constantine Chernenko, Mikhail Gorbachev Recognize the structure of the Communist Party and government institutions in the Soviet Union. Define the following terms: Central Committee, Politburo, Secretariat, Nomenklatura Recognize the structure of the Communist Party and government institutions in the Soviet Union. Define the following terms: Central Committee, Politburo, Secretariat, Nomenklatura

47 Learning Objectives After mastering the concepts presented in this chapter, you will be able to: Understand the role of Mikhail Gorbachev in the process of party, state and ideological reformation in the USSR. Understand the role of Mikhail Gorbachev in the process of party, state and ideological reformation in the USSR. Comprehend Gorbachev’s doctrines of perestroika, glasnost and democratization. Comprehend Gorbachev’s doctrines of perestroika, glasnost and democratization. Define and differentiate between the 1991 and the 1993 coups in the USSR and the Russian Federation. Define and differentiate between the 1991 and the 1993 coups in the USSR and the Russian Federation. Discuss the implications of the shock therapy and privatization in Russia. Discuss the implications of the shock therapy and privatization in Russia. Identify patterns of political culture, civil society participation and party affiliation among Russian voters in 1990s. Identify patterns of political culture, civil society participation and party affiliation among Russian voters in 1990s. Understand Russia’s electoral system and its impact on the development of the political system. Understand Russia’s electoral system and its impact on the development of the political system. Define the role of political parties in the elections and differentiate among the following political parties: Yabloko, United Russia, Just Russia, Liberal Democrats, Union of Right Forces Define the role of political parties in the elections and differentiate among the following political parties: Yabloko, United Russia, Just Russia, Liberal Democrats, Union of Right Forces Understand the composition of the Russian federal state. Understand the composition of the Russian federal state. Comprehend the challenging process of the development of Russian economy. Comprehend the challenging process of the development of Russian economy. Discuss the role of oligarchs in the Russian political and economic development. Discuss the role of oligarchs in the Russian political and economic development.


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