Introduction ◦ The introduction tells the reader: what the topic of the paper is in general terms, why the topic is important what to expect in the paper. ◦ Introductions should: funnel from general ideas to the specific topic of the paper justify the research that will be presented later ◦ Introductions are sometimes folded into literature reviews
A research report has seven components: 2. Introduction—an example
A sociological article, paper, or report generally covers only one important topic of interest and conveys evidence and interpretations of evidence. Research reports are NOT creative writing, opinion pieces, poems, novels, letters, musings, memoirs, or interesting to read.
A research paper has three sections: introduction, body paragraphs, and the conclusion. Headings created for subsections of papers body to make reading easier. Ideas: Did you develop them sufficiently? Are they understandable? Do you need to add more information? Make sure every sentence says something necessary and important. "Juvenile delinquency is a social problem" is poorly written
Order make sure paper progresses and orderly way. Check to see if the organization of your paper followed your outline. An outline helps you see where arguments are not supported by evidence Balance Supply sufficient evidence, but not too much. To support a point, use two good quotes, as opposed to five redundant quotes
Emphasis Repeat major points for emphasis using different words. Don't make the reader do the work of figuring out how your paper progresses or what is important Transitions – indicates logical relationships between sentences. Indicates to reader that you are shifting to a new idea, or highlights how certain material should be understood
to Indicate Addition: additionally, again, finally, furthermore; to Indicate comparison: by comparison, likewise, similarly to indicate contrast: although but, conversely, despite, notwithstanding, nevertheless, nonetheless regardless, yet, on the contrary; to indicate concession: certainly, given that, naturally, undoubtedly,
to Indicate examples: after all, for example, for instance, such as, to illustrate; to Indicate location: around, below, beyond, to the north, to the south; to Indicate sequence: again, finally, first, second, third, moreover, next, to indicate results: as a result, because, consequently, therefore; to indicate time: after, as soon as, at that time, since, earlier;
To Indicate Repetition: as has been argued, demonstrated, indicated, as this paper has indicated, noted, stated as mentioned earlier, as noted earlier; as stated earlier; To Indicate Summary or Conclusion: as a result, consequently, in conclusion, in some, on the whole, therefore, to conclude, to summarize;
Read through document and eliminate wordiness. Make sure each word in your paper accounts. Get rid of the fluff, the filler, the useless words, meaningless sentences. “in other words” change to regarding; Wordy: beginning to learn concise: learns is able to start starts person of the masculine sex males
Slang: awesomeformal: remarkable bash party dude chap stinks low-quality
Boozealcohol flunkfail copspolice officers kids children Trite Expressions law and orderlaw abiding powers that bethe authorities last but not leastlast
When writing a paper do not use the jargon of your specialty area. Imagine the audience you're writing to be broader then just people from your field who are familiar with the jargon. Ex: the perpetratorthe subject the collarthe arrested subject ethnomethodology what happens when people consciously break norms;
Eliminate contractions: “don’t change to do not! Eliminate first – person and second – person pronouns I, me, my, mine We, our, ours You, your, yours Makes your sentences more formal;
Avoid terminology reflecting stereotypes based on gender, race, ethnicity, age, social class, disabilities, religion, family status, sexual orientation, or other personal characteristics. What is the matter with the term “illegal alien”?
Don't use: Do Use man – madeartificial, synthetic manpowerworkforce, staff mankindhumanity, the human race mannedstaffed, handled forefathersancestors assemblymanmember of the assembly Congressmanmember of Congress