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Persuasive Techniques Fast Food Nation and The Role of Advertising.

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1 Persuasive Techniques Fast Food Nation and The Role of Advertising

2 Appeal to Authority/Ethics Positions the writer or speaker as a person of good sense, good moral character and good intentions Writer or speaker presents their argument as the right, fair, or correct thing to do For example: ▫A political candidate says he refuses to mud-sling and prefers to talk about the issues instead

3 Appeal to Logic Provides rational arguments to support one’s claim using facts, figures and statistics For example: ▫Facts are given that support the need to reduce traffic fatalities

4 Appeal to Emotion Uses emotionally charged language or images For example: ▫ASPCA/Humane Society commercials ▫Pictures of devastation caused by natural disasters in order to garner support for relief efforts

5 Completing Your Outline

6 A clear, concise thesis occurs in the first paragraph In the first paragraph of a persuasive essay, students should set the context by reviewing the topic in a general way. Next the author should explain why the topic is important or why readers should care about the issue. Lastly, students should present the thesis statement. It is essential that this thesis statement be appropriately narrowed to give the reader a clear picture of what argument will be made.

7 A good thesis passes the “so what?” test Bad thesis: “Milk is bad” Good thesis: “Milk is unhealthy for adults to consume, as it leads to a variety of adverse health effects”

8 Clear, logical transitions between paragraphs Transitions are the mortar that holds the foundation of the essay together. Without logical progression of thought, the reader is unable to follow the essay’s argument, and the structure will collapse. Transitions should wrap up the idea from the previous section and introduce the idea that is to follow in the next section.

9 Similarityalso, in the same way, just as … so too, likewise, similarly Exception/Contrast but, however, in spite of, on the one hand … on the other hand, nevertheless, nonetheless, notwithstanding, in contrast, on the contrary, still, yet Sequence/Orderfirst, second, third, … next, then, finally Time after, afterward, at last, before, currently, during, earlier, immediately, later, meanwhile, now, recently, simultaneously, subsequently, then Example for example, for instance, namely, specifically, to illustrate Emphasiseven, indeed, in fact, of course, truly Place/Position above, adjacent, below, beyond, here, in front, in back, nearby, there Cause and Effectaccordingly, consequently, hence, so, therefore, thus Additional Support or Evidence additionally, again, also, and, as well, besides, equally important, further, furthermore, in addition, moreover, then Conclusion/Summary finally, in a word, in brief, briefly, in conclusion, in the end, in the final analysis, on the whole, thus, to conclude, to summarize, in sum, to sum up, in summary

10 Body paragraphs must include evidential support Each paragraph should be limited to the discussion of one general idea. This will allow for clarity and direction throughout the essay. It is important to note that each paragraph in the body of the essay must have some logical connection to the thesis statement in the opening paragraph. It is also important to explain how and why the evidence supports the thesis. You should provide at least one quote per paragraph and show how it supports your thesis.

11 Concession Paragraph An effective refutation paragraph establishes the ethos, or the writer's credibility with his/her audience. Rather than explaining how these differing opinions are wrong outright, you should note how opinions that do not align with your thesis might not be well informed, out of date, or need revision. Ways writers can begin: But _______ is not completely inaccurate. It is often argued that... It is true that... Opposing views claim...

12 For Example Thesis: School choice turns out to not only be a bad idea; it’s also a violation of our constitution. Concession: Considering the many challenges facing public schools, it’s understandable that many people would be eager to pursue new options, such as charter schools. However, many large companies have started opening and operating charter schools. These companies represent a growing trend of privatization of public schools by large corporations. Education should be left in the hands of professional educators and not business people. To do otherwise is not only dangerous, it defies common sense.

13 A conclusion that does not simply restate the thesis, but readdresses it in light of the evidence provided. It is at this point of the essay that students may begin to struggle. This is the portion of the essay that will leave the most immediate impression on the mind of the reader. Therefore, it must be effective and logical. Do not introduce any new information into the conclusion; rather, synthesize the information presented in the body of the essay. Restate why the topic is important, review the main points, and review your thesis. You may also want to include a short discussion of more research that should be completed or steps that need to be taken.


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