2Objectives2.2.6 Examine selected paragraphs for techniques to develop clear and well-developed paragraphsDetails (facts, figures, reasons, examples)Coherence techniques (traditional expressions, parallel structure, and pronoun reference)Sentence arrangement (according to time, according to location, from general to specific, from specific to general, from least to most important, from problem to solution)Methods of development (description, classification, cause and effect, definition, comparison and contrast, process, and definition)2.2.7 Write well-developed, coherent, unified paragraphs which illustrate the following: a variety of sentence arrangements; conciseness and clarity; and adherence to correct and appropriate sentence structure, grammar, punctuation, and mechanics
3Supporting DetailsThink of the supporting details of paragraphs as the proof you are providing your reader.This “proof” can come in the form of:Facts - explanatoryFigures – statistics, study findingsReasons – findings from a study, cause/effect instancesExamples – explanatory
4Creating Coherence What is coherence? Coherence is achieved when one can read through a paragraph and each sentence flows easily and logically to the next.Coherence can be enhanced by using any or all of the following techniques in your writing:Transitional ExpressionsLogical Relation of IdeasRepetition of Key WordsUse of Pronouns to refer to a Previous SubjectNOTE: Coherence has not be achieved if the reader cannot follow what you have written.
5Coherence Words:To show addition: again, and, also, besides, equally important, first (second, etc.), further, furthermore, in addition, in the first place, moreover, next, tooTo give examples: for example, for instance, in fact, specifically, that is, to illustrateTo compare: also, in the same manner, likewise, similarlyTo contrast: although, and yet, at the same time, but, despite, even though, however, in contrast, in spite of, nevertheless, on the contrary, on the other hand, still, though, yet
6Coherence Words Con’t: To summarize or conclude: all in all, in conclusion, in other words, in short, in summary, on the whole, that is, therefore, to sum upTo show time: after, afterward, as, as long as, as soon as, at last, before, during, earlier, finally, formerly, immediately, later, meanwhile, next, since, shortly, subsequently, then, thereafter, until, when, whileTo show place or direction: above, below, beyond, close, elsewhere, farther on, here, nearby, opposite, to the left (north, etc.)To indicate logical relationship: accordingly, as a result, because, consequently, for this reason, hence, if, otherwise, since, so, then, therefore, thus
7Coherence Techniques: Parallel Structure Parallelism, or writing that is consistent in form and structure, reduces frustration among readers.Pronouns must be consistent in person and number.Verb tenses must match.Sentences must be balanced, meaning that the grammatical structure used must be repeated in sentences.This is especially important for items in a series.Examples: They enjoy going out but you hate fighting the crowds. I love skating, skiing, and to go snowshoeing.The pitcher throws the ball, and the batter hit it.Anything wrong with the sentences?Would these be confusing to the reader?How can we fix the mistakes?
8Practice Restore parallel structures in the following sentences: He was a traitor, a thief, and cowardly.She came bearing gifts, showering promises, and smiled amiably.He left with neither his promises fulfilled nor were his smiles returned.Conscience can be deceived by envy, pride can silence it, and it can be beguiled by self-interest.Good government requires an informed electorate and politicians who are accountable for their decisions.
9Coherence Techniques: Pronoun Reference Pronouns quite naturally connect ideas because pronouns almost always refer the reader to something earlier in the text.I cannot say "This is true because . . ." without causing the reader to consider what "this" could mean.The pronoun causes the reader to sum up, quickly and subconsciously, what was said before (what this is) before going on to the because part of my reasoning.It must always be perfectly clear what a pronoun refers to.Do not rely on unclear pronoun references to avoid responsibility: "They say that . . ."
10Sentence Arrangement: You were asked to complete #2 on page 176Let’s review the answersNOTE: You should have read the chapter by now includinginformation on sequencing.
11ActivityWrite a paragraph on one of the topics below. Make sure your paragraph has a clear and manageable controlling idea, and that you use the techniques for creating coherence discussed in this class. Topic 1: your favorite sport Topic 2: a recent film you liked (or hated) Topic 3: cats vs dogs