Presentation on theme: "Mature Use of Transitions"— Presentation transcript:
1Mature Use of Transitions Lesson Plan: Writing Coherent Transitions by Trent LorcherGetting StartedHave students come up with their own definition of transition and write their responses on the board. Definitions will vary but most can be applied to writing. Understanding transitions in other contexts facilitates understanding their importance in writing.Be sure your discussion includes the following:good writing presents and connects ideas in a clear, logical manner.When used appropriately (please emphasize when used appropriately; otherwise, transitions bog down the reader (ironic, you must agree)), transitions clarify connections for the reader and make writing coherent.Effective transitions are more than just a list of words your middle school teacher gave you.NOTE: Have a transition page ready for students as a hand-out. A handout for transitions was placed in all of the writing folders in September.Linking your ideas!
2DefinitionTransition words are used to link sentences and ideas. They help your reader by establishing logical connections between your sentences, paragraphs, and sections of your papers.If you use them correctly, your writing will be easier to understand and more mature.Look for transitions when you are reading the newspaper, a magazine, or a book. Notice how other writers have used these words, then try to use them yourself in your own writing.Procedures1) Explain that transitions have different functions. Instruct students to copy down the following examples of how transitions in writing function.to show time - one day later...to clarify cause and effect - as a result...to show location - to the right...to introduce examples - for example...to add more information - in addition...to contrast information - otherwise...to conclude - in conclusion...to compare - much like...2) Give students a writing sample, one with good transitions.3) Instruct students to identify transitions and the function they serve. This is best done in groups of 3-4.4) Discuss answers.Revising for ClarityDo this transitions in writing activity if you are teaching revision:After you discuss each groups' findings, have them reassemble.Instruct students will read each other's rough draft.Readers should identify any part of the rough draft that lacks clarity.Readers should identify and circle all transitions.After the rough drafts have been marked appropriately, each student will revise his or her essay for coherence. For confusing parts, the writer should ask if transitions would make it more clear.For each transition the writer used, he or she should ask if the meaning of the passage would be less clear without the transition. If the transition adds no clarity, it should be deleted.TIP: Many teachers drudge up a list of transition words. Although students should be aware of these words, they usually lead to lazy writing. In fact, I bet if you went through your writing and got rid of 3/4 of your "transition words," it would make very little difference in meaning.How to Revise Essays for Organization: Six Lesson Plans that WorkOrganized people accomplish more. So does organized writing. teach your students how to organize their writing and how to revise their writing with these five excellent lessons.Read more:
3SIGNAL YOUR READER!Transitions signal relationships between ideas such as: "Another example coming up—stay alert!" or "Here's an exception to my previous statement" or "Although this idea appears to be true, here's the real story." Basically, transitions provide the reader withdirections for how to piece togetheryour ideas into a logically coherentargument.
4“I was concentrating on my homework. Meanwhile the soup boiled over!
5EXAMPLES LOGICAL RELATIONSHIP TRANSITIONAL EXPRESSION Similarity also, in the same way, just as ... so too, likewise, similarlyException/Contrastbut, however, in spite of, on the one hand ... on the other hand, nevertheless, nonetheless, notwithstanding, in contrast, on the contrary, still, yetSequence/Orderfirst, second, third, ... next, then, finallyTimeafter, afterward, at last, before, currently, during, earlier, immediately, later, meanwhile, now, recently, simultaneously, subsequently, thenExamplefor example, for instance, namely, specifically, to illustrateEmphasiseven, indeed, in fact, of course, trulyPlace/Positionabove, adjacent, below, beyond, here, in front, in back, nearby, thereCause and Effectaccordingly, consequently, hence, so, therefore, thusAdditional Support or Evidenceadditionally, again, also, and, as well, besides, equally important, further, furthermore, in addition, moreover, thenConclusion/Summaryfinally, in a word, in brief, in conclusion, in the end, in the final analysis, on the whole, thus, to conclude, to summarize, in sum, in summary
6“How would I improve these sentences to include better transitions?” “I get thirsty and hot in class all day with nothing to drink. We should be allowed to drink sodas in class. I know the custodian wouldn’t want to mop up spills every night. We’re not babies; we could clean up if an accident happened. I think we would do better work if we could have some caffeine in the morning.Teacher reads aloud, pausing after each sentence, asking, “Can you think of a transition word that belongs here?”
7Much better….I get thirsty and hot in class all day with nothing to drink. Therefore, I believe we should be allowed to drink sodas in class. However, I know the custodian wouldn’t want to mop up spills every night. In fact, we’re not babies, we could clean up if an accident happened. Furthermore, I think we would do better work if we could have some caffeine in the morning!“In each transitional spot, there are several different words that would have worked. You need to choose words that feel natural and have the tone you desire in that particular piece of writing.”
8Models from reading….Working with your partner or in a triad, go through your reading assignment looking for the various transitions the writer uses.Create a list of six transitions the author uses to share with the class.
9Independent Practice: 20 minutes “Now, please write (in class) two short paragraphs giving an opinion about any issue you choose. (You can pick an issue like the school dress code, amount of homework you receive, chewing gum or eating in class, or your family’s rules regarding bedtime, or curfew.) In these two paragraphs, you must correctly use at least four transitional words from the handout. “If time permits, students should trade with a neighbor to share their choice of transitional words, and why they picked those words.
10Immature Use of Transitions “First students should,…”“Second, students will believe….”“Third, we all want to…”.“Next, the entire student body….”“In conclusion….”.This type of writing sounds as if it is written using a formula. The writer needs to use a variety of transitions or transitional phrases.NO ONE WANTS TO SOUND BABYISH!
11Assessment – 2-5 minutesThe teacher collects the paragraphs to determine if the students now understand the appropriate use of transitional words.Based upon paragraphs written in class, the teacher should determine if the students understand how to use these transition words. If many do not understand, she should do a read-aloud of a text that uses many of these words, and point out the appropriate use of transition words.Closure/Expectations: 3 minutes“Put this handout in your writing notebook/folder, and keep it for future reference. I want to see you try out different transitional words in your future writings. If you like, there are other more detailed lists available, just ask me.”