3 Acids – Arrhenius Definition A compound that has a H+ cation that it can donate to water to produce the hydronium ion (H3O+1)HOwaterHO+1H+1hydronium ionBy this definition, if an acid is to give a H+1 to water, then all acids will have hydrogen as the cation (first element written).
4 How do Acids produce Hydronium? -wateracidHydrogen cation with some anion
8 Naming Non-oxygen Acids These compounds :Start with “H” (more than 1 “H” is OK, too).Have only 2 elements in total (One of them is hydrogen the other is NOT oxygen.)Examples: HCl H2STo name these compounds:Use “hydro____ic acid”Fill in the blank with the anion’s name without the last syllable
10 HBr Example #1 Hydrobromic acid Hydrogen cation Bromine It’s an acid No oxygenUse “hydro___ic”
11 Naming Oxygen Acids These compounds have: To name these compounds: Start with “H” (more than 1 “H” is OK, too).Contain a polyatomic ion that has oxygen in it.To name these compounds:Use “___ic acid” for “-ate” anions; the blank is filled in with the polyatomic ions name without the suffix.Use “___ous acid” for “-ite” anions; the blank is filled in with the polyatomic ions name without the suffix.Examples: HNO2 is . . .HNO3 is . . .
21 Hydrofluoric acid Example #4 Hydrogen cation Only one other element
22 Does not contain oxygen Example #4H+1Hydrogen cationHydrofluoric acidDoes not contain oxygenH+1F-1F-1HF
23 NON “Hydro-” acids To write these formulas: The cation is H+1 If it is an “-ic” acid, the anion is the “-ate” polyatomic ionIf it is an “-ous” acid, the anion is the “-ite” polyatomic ionAdd subscript to the hydrogen cation to balance charges
28 From the “___ite” anion Example #6H+1Hydrogen cationNitrous acidFrom the “___ite” anionNO2-1
29 From the “___ite” anion Example #6H+1Hydrogen cationNitrous acidH+NO2-From the “___ite” anionHNO2NO2-1
30 Write the formula for the following acids Let’s PracticePhosphoric acidHydroiodic acidAcetic acidPerchloric acidExample:Write the formula for the following acids
31 Write the formula for the following acids Let’s PracticePhosphoric acidHydroiodic acidAcetic acidPerchloric acidH3PO4HIHC2H3O2HClO4Example:Write the formula for the following acids
32 Bases Objective: Define and distinguish between acids & bases Explain and use nomenclature rules for naming and writing formulas for bases
33 Bases – Arrhenius Definition Bases produce the hydroxide ion in waterMOST bases will be ionic compounds with the OH-1 anion. (Ex. NaOH or Ca(OH)2)MOST IMPORTANT EXCEPTION is NH3 (ammonia).NH3 + H2O NH OH-1HO-1Hydroxide Ion
38 Example #8Iron (III) hydroxide Fe+3 OH-1 criss –cross the number of the charges Fe(OH)3
39 Write the formula or name for each Let’s PracticeCa(OH)2KOHSr(OH)2Copper (II) hydroxideMagnesium hydroxideExample:Write the formula or name for each
40 Write the formula or name for each Let’s PracticeCa(OH)2KOHSr(OH)2Copper (II) hydroxideMagnesium hydroxideCalcium hydroxidePotassium hydroxideStrontium hydroxideCu(OH)2Mg(OH)2Example:Write the formula or name for each
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