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Section 2.4—Defining, Naming & Writing Acids & Bases We need to know how acids and bases behave when talking about ant-acids!

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Presentation on theme: "Section 2.4—Defining, Naming & Writing Acids & Bases We need to know how acids and bases behave when talking about ant-acids!"— Presentation transcript:

1 Section 2.4—Defining, Naming & Writing Acids & Bases We need to know how acids and bases behave when talking about ant-acids!

2 Acids

3 Acids – Arrhenius Definition A compound that has a H + cation that it can donate to water to produce the hydronium ion (H 3 O +1 ) H O H water H +1 H O H H By this definition, if an acid is to give a H +1 to water, then all acids will have hydrogen as the cation (first element written). hydronium ion

4 How do Acids produce Hydronium? H O H H - water acid Hydrogen cation with some anion

5 How do Acids produce Hydronium? H O H H - +1

6 How do Acids produce Hydronium? H O H H +1 - Hydronium ion Anion

7 Naming Acids

8 These compounds :  Start with “H” (more than 1 “H” is OK, too).  Have only 2 elements in total (One of them is hydrogen the other is NOT oxygen.)  Examples: HCl H 2 S To name these compounds:  Use “hydro____ic acid”  Fill in the blank with the anion’s name without the last syllable Naming Non-oxygen Acids

9 Example #1 HBr

10 Example #1 HBr Hydrogen cation Bromine It’s an acid No oxygen Use “hydro___ic” Hydrobromic acid

11 These compounds have:  Start with “H” (more than 1 “H” is OK, too).  Contain a polyatomic ion that has oxygen in it. To name these compounds:  Use “___ic acid” for “-ate” anions; the blank is filled in with the polyatomic ions name without the suffix.  Use “___ous acid” for “-ite” anions; the blank is filled in with the polyatomic ions name without the suffix. Naming Oxygen Acids Examples: HNO 2 is... HNO 3 is...

12 Example #2 H 2 SO 3

13 Example #2 Hydrogen cation Sulfite ion It’s an acid “-ite” ion Use “___ous” acid H 2 SO 3 Sulfurous acid

14 Example #3 H 2 SO 4

15 Example #3 Hydrogen cation Sulfate ion It’s an acid “-ate” ion Use “___ic” H 2 SO 4 Sulfuric acid

16 Let’s Practice Example: Write the name for the following compounds HIHI H 2 CO 3 HC 2 H 3 O 2 H 3 PO 3

17 Let’s Practice hydroiodic acid carbonic acid acetic acid phosphorous acid Example: Write the name for the following compounds H I H 2 CO 3 HC 2 H 3 O 2 H 3 PO 3

18 Writing Acid Formulas

19 To write these formulas:  The cation is H +1  Write the anion and charge  Balance the charges by adding the appropriate subscript to the hydrogen cation “Hydro-” acids

20 Example #4 Hydrofluoric acid

21 Example #4 Hydrofluoric acid Hydrogen cation Only one other element H +1 F -1

22 Example #4 Hydrofluoric acid Hydrogen cation Does not contain oxygen H +1 F -1 HF H +1 F -1

23 To write these formulas:  The cation is H +1  If it is an “-ic” acid, the anion is the “-ate” polyatomic ion  If it is an “-ous” acid, the anion is the “-ite” polyatomic ion  Add subscript to the hydrogen cation to balance charges NON “Hydro-” acids

24 Example #5 Carbonic acid

25 Example #5 Carbonic acid Hydrogen cation From the “___ate” anion H +1 CO 3 -2

26 Example #5 Carbonic acid Hydrogen cation From the “___ate” anion H +1 CO 3 -2 H 2 CO 3 H + CO 3 2-

27 Example #6 Nitrous acid

28 Example #6 Nitrous acid Hydrogen cation From the “___ite” anion H +1 NO 2 -1

29 Example #6 Nitrous acid Hydrogen cation From the “___ite” anion H +1 NO 2 -1 HNO 2 H + NO 2 -

30 Let’s Practice Example: Write the formula for the following acids Phosphoric acid Hydroiodic acid Acetic acid Perchloric acid

31 Phosphoric acid Hydroiodic acid Acetic acid Perchloric acid Let’s Practice H 3 PO 4 HIHI HC 2 H 3 O 2 HClO 4 Example: Write the formula for the following acids

32 Bases Objective: Define and distinguish between acids & bases Explain and use nomenclature rules for naming and writing formulas for bases

33 Bases – Arrhenius Definition Bases produce the hydroxide ion in water MOST bases will be ionic compounds with the OH -1 anion. (Ex. NaOH or Ca(OH) 2 ) MOST IMPORTANT EXCEPTION is NH 3 (ammonia).  NH 3 + H 2 O  NH OH -1 H O Hydroxide Ion

34 Naming & Writing Bases

35 Most bases are just ionic compounds with “hydroxide” as their anion The most common exception to this is ammonia. NH 3 is a base even though it doesn’t contain “-OH” as the anion. Naming Bases

36 Example #7 NaOH

37 Example #7 NaOH Sodium Hydroxide Sodium Hydroxide

38 Example #8 Iron (III) hydroxide Fe +3 OH -1 criss –cross the number of the charges Fe(OH) 3

39 Let’s Practice Example: Write the formula or name for each Ca(OH) 2 KOH Sr(OH) 2 Copper (II) hydroxide Magnesium hydroxide

40 Let’s Practice Calcium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Strontium hydroxide Cu(OH) 2 Mg(OH) 2 Example: Write the formula or name for each Ca(OH) 2 KOH Sr(OH) 2 Copper (II) hydroxide Magnesium hydroxide


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