Presentation on theme: "Objectives SWBAT Define an organic compound."— Presentation transcript:
1 Objectives SWBAT Define an organic compound. Explain how the structure and bonding of carbon lead to the diversity of organic compounds.Distinguish among the structures of alkanes, alkenes, and alkynes.Recognize characteristics of organic compounds such as alkanes.
2 Introduction to Organic Chemistry Organic Compounds
3 Organic Compounds Organic compound: Compound made from one or more C atoms with many H atoms.May also contain O, S, N, and halogens.Hydrocarbon = organic cpd with C & H.Saturated = all single bondsUnsaturated = multiple bonds
4 Properties of Organic Compounds Have low melting points and boiling points.Are flammable.Are soluble in nonpolar solvents therefore are not soluble in water.Oil (organic) andwater (inorganic)
5 Organic vs. InorganicPropane, C3H8, is an organic compound used as a fuel.NaCl, salt, is an inorganic compound composed of Na+ and Cl− ions.Why is propane anorganic compound, butNaCl is not?
6 Why Carbon? (remember biology) In carbon compoundsCarbon has 4 valence electrons and hydrogen has 1.•• C • H •To achieve an octet, C forms four covalent bonds.H H H C H H C HH H CH4 , methane
7 AlkanesSaturated hydrocarbon (only SINGLE bonds between adjacent carbon atoms).Formula: CnH2n+2
8 Names of Alkanes The names of alkanes Use a prefix to indicate the number of carbons in a chain.End in –ane.
10 Structural Formulas for Alkanes Alkanes are written with structural formulas that areExpanded to show each bond.Condensed to show each carbon atom and its attached hydrogen atoms.Expanded CondensedHH C H CH4 , methaneIn methane, CH4 the four valence electrons of carbon are shared with the single electrons of four hydrogen (H) atoms. Each pair of electrons is a single bond, which can be drawn as a line. When a structure is drawn to show each bond, it is called a complete structural formula.
12 Learning Check A. Write the condensed structural formula for: H H H H HH C C C C C HH H H H HB. What is its molecular formula?C. What is its name?
13 Learning Check Write the condensed structural formula for A. ethane B. heptane
14 Alkyl groups Alkyl groups are Alkanes that are missing one H. Side groups attached to carbon chains.Named with a –yl ending.HH C CH3 methylH HH C C CH3 CH2 ethyl
15 Alkanes with Alkyl Groups CH3CH3 CH CH methylpropanemethyl groupsCH CH3CH3 CH CH2 CH CH ,4-dimethylpentane
16 Guide to Naming All Alkanes Give the name of CH3 CH3 CH3─CH─CH─CH3STEP Longest chain is butane.STEP Number chain. CH3 CH3 STEP 3 Locate alkyl groups and name.2,3-dimethylbutane
17 Alkenes and AlkynesAlkenes - unsaturated hydrocarbon with at least one double bondCnH2nAlkynes - unsaturated hydrocarbon with at least one triple bond.CnH2n-2
18 Naming Alkenes and Alkynes Use the same prefixes as you did for naming Alkanes.Replace “ane” with “ene” or “yne”
19 Rules for Naming Hydrocarbons Find the longest continuous chain of carbon atoms. Use the proper prefix to name the chain.If it is an alkane add the ending –aneIf it is an alkene add the ending –eneIf it is an alkyne add the ending -yneNumber the carbon atoms in the chain so that the lowest possible numbers will be given for the attached side groupsName the groups attached to the chain by adding a prefix –yl to the stem name. Locate them by identifying the number assigned to the carbon it is located onIf there is more than one group arrange them in alphabetical order
20 Halogen Substitution A hydrogen can be replaced with Chloro -Cl Bromo -BrIodo -IName using the lowest number carbon