Presentation on theme: "Objectives SWBAT Define an organic compound. Explain how the structure and bonding of carbon lead to the diversity of organic compounds. Distinguish."— Presentation transcript:
Objectives SWBAT Define an organic compound. Explain how the structure and bonding of carbon lead to the diversity of organic compounds. Distinguish among the structures of alkanes, alkenes, and alkynes. Recognize characteristics of organic compounds such as alkanes.
2 Introduction to Organic Chemistry Organic Compounds
3 Organic compound: Compound made from one or more C atoms with many H atoms. May also contain O, S, N, and halogens. Hydrocarbon = organic cpd with C & H. Saturated = all single bonds Unsaturated = multiple bonds
4 Properties of Organic Compounds Have low melting points and boiling points. Are flammable. Are soluble in nonpolar solvents therefore are not soluble in water. Oil (organic) and water (inorganic)
5 Organic vs. Inorganic Propane, C 3 H 8, is an organic compound used as a fuel. NaCl, salt, is an inorganic compound composed of Na + and Cl − ions. Why is propane an organic compound, but NaCl is not?
6 Why Carbon? (remember biology) In carbon compounds Carbon has 4 valence electrons and hydrogen has 1. C H To achieve an octet, C forms four covalent bonds. H H C H H C H H H CH 4, methane
Alkanes Saturated hydrocarbon (only SINGLE bonds between adjacent carbon atoms). Formula: C n H 2n+2 7
8 Names of Alkanes The names of alkanes Use a prefix to indicate the number of carbons in a chain. End in –ane.
Prefixes for hydrocarbons
10 Structural Formulas for Alkanes Alkanes are written with structural formulas that are Expanded to show each bond. Condensed to show each carbon atom and its attached hydrogen atoms. Expanded Condensed H H C HCH 4, methane H
12 Learning Check A. Write the condensed structural formula for: H H H H H H C C C C C H H H H H H B. What is its molecular formula? C. What is its name?
13 Learning Check Write the condensed structural formula for A. ethane B. heptane
14 Alkyl groups Alkyl groups are Alkanes that are missing one H. Side groups attached to carbon chains. Named with a –yl ending. H H C CH 3 methyl H H H H C C CH 3 CH 2 ethyl H H
15 Alkanes with Alkyl Groups CH 3 CH 3 CH CH 3 methylpropane methyl groups CH 3 CH 3 CH 3 CH CH 2 CH CH 3 2,4-dimethylpentane
16 Guide to Naming All Alkanes Give the name of CH 3 CH 3 CH 3 ─CH─CH─CH 3 STEP 1 Longest chain is butane. STEP 2 Number chain. CH 3 CH 3 CH 3 ─CH─CH─CH STEP 3 Locate alkyl groups and name. 2,3-dimethylbutane
17 Alkenes and Alkynes Alkenes - unsaturated hydrocarbon with at least one double bond C n H 2n Alkynes - unsaturated hydrocarbon with at least one triple bond. C n H 2n-2
18 Naming Alkenes and Alkynes Use the same prefixes as you did for naming Alkanes. Replace “ane” with “ene” or “yne”
Rules for Naming Hydrocarbons 1.Find the longest continuous chain of carbon atoms. Use the proper prefix to name the chain. If it is an alkane add the ending –ane If it is an alkene add the ending –ene If it is an alkyne add the ending -yne 2.Number the carbon atoms in the chain so that the lowest possible numbers will be given for the attached side groups 3.Name the groups attached to the chain by adding a prefix –yl to the stem name. Locate them by identifying the number assigned to the carbon it is located on 4.If there is more than one group arrange them in alphabetical order
Halogen Substitution A hydrogen can be replaced with Chloro -Cl Bromo-Br Iodo-I Name using the lowest number carbon