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Nomenclature!!! What’s in a name?. REMEMBER!!! 1.When naming compounds ALWAYS, ALWAYS have a periodic table in front of you! 2.Ions – positively or negatively.

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Presentation on theme: "Nomenclature!!! What’s in a name?. REMEMBER!!! 1.When naming compounds ALWAYS, ALWAYS have a periodic table in front of you! 2.Ions – positively or negatively."— Presentation transcript:

1 Nomenclature!!! What’s in a name?

2 REMEMBER!!! 1.When naming compounds ALWAYS, ALWAYS have a periodic table in front of you! 2.Ions – positively or negatively charged atom due to an decrease or increase of electrons – Cations – positively charged ( metals that loose electrons) ex. Na + – Anion – negatively charged (non-metal that gains electrons) ex. Cl -

3 Predicting Charges on Monatomic Ions KNOW THESE !!!! Cd +2

4 Quick Review Write the correct formula for the compounds containing the following ions: 1. Na +, S 2- a) NaS b) Na 2 Sc) NaS 2 2. Al 3+, Cl - a) AlCl 3 b) AlCl c) Al 3 Cl 3. Mg 2+, N 3- a) MgN b) Mg 2 N 3 c) Mg 3 N 2

5 Naming Binary Ionic Compounds Binary Ionic Compound – A compound that has 2 atoms – 1 cation and 1 anion – Cation is always first Two types – Type I – Type II

6 Naming Binary Ionic Compounds Type I – The metal only forms 1 type of cation – ex. Li  Li + Type 2 – The metal can form 2 or more cations – ex. Cu  Cu + or Cu 2+

7 Naming Binary Ionic Compounds How can you tell if it is a Type I or Type II? – Type I: Group 1 and 2, Al, Zn, Cd, and Ag, – Transition metals are almost always Type II

8 Binary Ionic Compounds Type I Rules for Naming Type I Ionic Compounds 1.Cation (metal) is named before the anion (non- metal). 2.Cation (metal) is the name of the element. 3.Anion (non-metal) is the “root” of the element + ide 4.Combine the Cation and Anion

9 Binary Ionic Compounds Type I Ex. NaCl 1.Cation is named before the anion. – we know that Na is first because it’s a cation 2.Cation is the name of the element. – Na is Sodium 3.Anion is the “root” of the element + ide – Cl is Chlorine, root is Chlor + ide = Chloride 4.Combine the Cation and Anion – Sodium Chloride is the name!!

10 Lets try one on our own: NaI Ex. NaI 1.Cation is named before the anion. – we know that Na is first because it’s a cation 2.Cation is the name of the element. – Na is Sodium 3.Anion is the “root” of the element + ide – I is Iodine, root is Iod + ide = Iodide 4.Combine the Cation and Anion – Sodium Iodide is the name!!

11 Lets try another: CaO Ex. CaO 1.Cation is named before the anion. – we know that Ca is first because it’s a cation 2.Cation is the name of the element. – Ca is Calcium 3.Anion is the “root” of the element + ide – O is Oxygen, root is Ox + ide = Oxide 4.Combine the Cation and Anion – Calcium Oxide is the name!!

12 Binary Ionic Compounds Type I Notice: The formula doesn’t show the charges of the individual ions. Ex. NaCl means Na + is present with Cl - Ex. CaS means Ca 2+ is present with S 2-

13 Let’s try some!! CsF AlCl 3 MgI 2

14 Binary Ionic Compounds Type II Some metals can form more than one ion. This is what makes them Type II Ex. Lead(Pb) => Pb 2+ or Pb 4+ Ex. Iron(Fe) => Fe 2+ or Fe 3+ Transition metals are almost always Type II

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16 Binary Ionic Compounds Type II To name these we use the same naming method except we add a Roman numeral to the cation name. The anion stays the same as before. It’s so easy…. even a caveman could do it.

17 Binary Ionic Compounds Type II (the cation) EXTEMELY IMPORTANT!!! The Roman numeral tells the charge, not the # of ions present. Ex. Fe 3+ => iron(III) and Fe 2+ => iron(II) Ex. Pb 2+ => lead(II) and Pb 4+ => lead(IV) You would be wise to remember this.

18 Binary Ionic Compounds Type II (the anion) The anion will be named the same way as with Type I (using ide for the ending) Anion is the “root” of the element + ide Ex. O is Oxygen, root is Ox + ide = Oxide Ex. Cl is Chlorine, root is Chlor + ide = Chloride

19 Binary Ionic Compounds Type II All together: FeCl 2 => iron(II) chloride PbO 2 => lead(IV) oxide How do we know it’s iron(II) and not iron(III) How do we know it’s lead(IV) and not lead(II) Lets take a closer look.

20 FeCl 2 We are given FeCl 2 We know the overall charge has to be natural. We know: – Cl is going to have a 1- charge. – there are 2 Cl – Cl 2 has an overall charge of 2- – There is only one Fe atom – Therefore the one Fe has to have a charge of 2+ Draw out on board iron(II) chloride

21 PbO 2 We are given PbO 2 We know the overall charge has to be natural. We know: – O is going to have a 2- charge. – there are 2 O – O 2 has an overall charge of 4- – There is only one Pb atom – Therefore the one Pb has to have a charge of 4+ Draw out on board lead(IV) oxide

22 Remember!!! The Roman numeral in a name indicates the charge of the ion, not the subscript in the formula. Ex. Iron(II) oxide => FeO Ex. iron(II) chloride => FeCl 2

23 Let’s try some!!! CuCl HgO Fe 2 O 3

24 Naming Molecular Compounds CH 4 methane BCl 3 boron trichloride CO 2 Carbon dioxide All are formed from two or more nonmetals. Ionic compounds generally involve a metal and nonmetal (NaCl)

25 Binary Covalent Compound Rules for naming: Prefix System 1.The first atom is the element name. 2.The second atom is named like an anion. 3.Add prefixes to indicate # of atoms. Omit mono- prefix on the FIRST element. Ex. PCl 3 => phosphorus trichloride

26 Binary Covalent Compound These are the prefixes that are used to indicate the number of atoms in a compound. Mono is never used for the first atom.

27 Binary Covalent Compound: I The first atom is the element name. – I becomes iodine 2.The second atom is named like an anion. – O is Oxygen, root is ox + ide = oxide 3.Prefixes are given to each atom to tell the number of atoms present. – di = 2, hepta = 7 – so… di + iodine = diiodine – and… hepta + oxide = heptoxide – Answer: diiodine heptoxide

28 Binary Covalent Compound: CF 4 1.The first atom is the element name. – C becomes carbon 2.The second atom is named like an anion. – F is fluorine, root is fluor + ide = fluoride 3.Prefixes are given to each atom to tell the number of atoms present. – mono = 1, tetra = 4 – so… mono + carbon = monocarbon – and… tera + fluoride = tetrafluoride – Answer: carbon tetrafluoride – REMEMBER!!! Mono is never used for the first atom.

29 Let’s try some!!! BF 3 NO N 2 O 5

30 Naming Binary Compounds Review

31 Review Practice 1.AsF 3 2.Al 2 S 3 3.SnBr 4 4.CS 2 5.CdS 6.silver chloride 7.dinitrogen pentaoxide 8.iron(III) chloride 9.phosphorus pentaoxide 10.manganeses(IV) oxide

32 More Complex Compounds!!

33 Polyatomic Ions – Charged entities composed of several atoms bound together – Assigned special names – No system, must be memorized – (don’t worry you don’t have to, just know how to use it) Ex. CN -, NH 4 +, NO 3 -

34 Polyatomic Ions (pg 109)

35 Polyatomic Ions Oxyanions Some of these polyatomic ions are called Oxyanions They contain an atom and different #’s of oxygen atoms. Ex. NO 3 -, ClO 2 -, PO 4 3-

36 Polyatomic Ions Oxyanions Some of these oxyanions, form in a series. The smaller # O, ends with ite The larger # O, ends with ate Ex. NO 2 - => nitrite Ex. NO 3 - => nitrate

37 Polyatomic Ions Oxyanions If there are more than 2 then… The smallest # O, begins with hypo – meaning less than The largest # O, begins with per – meaning more than Ex. ClO - => hypochlorite Ex. ClO 4 - => perchlorate

38 Polyatomic Ions Oxyanions All combined smallest = hypo => ClO - = hypochlorite Small = ite => ClO 2 - = chlorite Large = ate => ClO 3 - = chlorate largest = per => ClO 4 - = perchlorate

39 Now back to the naming complex compounds Need to do one thing. – Recognize common polyatomic ions

40 Now when you see NH 4 C 2 H 3 O 2 you can break it down. NH 4 - => ammonium C 2 H 3 O 2 => acetate It’s name is ammonium acetate

41 NH 4 - => ammonium C 2 H 3 O 2 + => acetate NH 4 C 2 H 3 O 2 Notice that it’s separate parts have a charge but together they are neutral Just like binary compounds.

42 Also like Type II, Binary Compounds, you may need Roman numerals Ex. FeSO 4 => iron(II) sulfate Ex. Mn(OH) 2 => manganese(II) hydroxide

43 FeSO 4 What are the two parts? We know the overall charge has to be natural. We know: – SO 4 is going to have a 2- charge. – There is only one Fe atom – Therefore the one Fe has to have a charge of 2+ – So the name is iron(II) sulfate Draw out on board

44 Mn(OH) 2 What are the two parts? We know the overall charge has to be natural. We know: – OH is going to have a 1- charge. – There are 2 OH – (OH) 2 has an overall charge of 2- – There is only one Mn atom – Therefore the one Mn has to have a charge of 2+ – So the name is manganese(II) hydroxide

45 Lets practice some!! Na 2 (SO) 4 KH 2 PO 4 Fe(NO 3 ) 3

46 Naming Acids!!

47 Acids Is a molecule with one or more H + ions attached to an anion. Translation: – A molecule with H + and non-metals Ex. HCl, HCN, H 2 S

48 Naming Acids Two types: 1.Ones that contain oxygen 2.Ones without oxygen

49 Those with oxygen 1.Start with the root of the anion. 2.Add the prefix hydro 3.Add the suffix ic Ex. hydrochloric acid Ex. hydrofluoric acid

50 HCl 1.Start with the root of the anion. Cl is chlorine, root => chlor 2.Add the prefix hydro hydro + chlore = hydrochlore 3.Add the suffix ic hydrochlore + ic = hydrochloreic Answer: hydrochloreic acid

51 HF 1.Start with the root of the anion. F is fluorine, root => fluor 2.Add the prefix hydro hydro + fluor = hydrofluor 3.Add the suffix ic hydrofluor + ic = hydrofluoric Answer: hydrofluoric acid

52 A few exceptions HCN => hydrocyanic acid H 2 S => hydrosulfuric acid Why are they exceptions?

53 Lets try a few HBr HI

54 Those with out oxygen 1.Start with the root of the anion. 2.If the anion ends with an ate – Drop the ate and add ic – Ex. Acetic acid 3.If the anion ends with ite – Drop the ite and add ous – Ex. Nitrous acid

55 HC 2 H 3 O 2 1.Start with the root of the anion. C 2 H 3 O 2 is Acetate = > root is acet 2.If the anion ends with an ate – Drop the ate and add ic Acet + ic => acetic Answer: acetic acid 3.If the anion ends with ite – Drop the ite and add ous – Ex. Nitrous acid

56 HNO 2 1.Start with the root of the anion. NO 2 is nitrite = > root is nitr 2.If the anion ends with an ate – Drop the ate and add ic 3.If the anion ends with ite – Drop the ite and add ous – Ex. Nitrous acid Nitr + ous => nitrous Answer: nitrous acid

57 A few exceptions Sulfur – H 2 SO 4 => sulfuric acid H 3 PO 4 => phosphoric acid How are they exceptions?

58 Lets try a few HClO 4 HNO 3 Perchloric acid Nitric acid

59 Naming acids flow chart

60 Lets try a few Pg 111 practice problems (yellow box) – #’s a-g Pg 112 practice problems (yellow box) – #’s a-g Pg 115 practice problems (yellow box) – #’s a-e


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